Špela UrhEthnicity and gender: The situation of Roma women in private and public sphere - Pg. 357Keywords: Roma, ethnically sensitive social work, discrimination, private sphere, public sphere
Sensitivity theories in regard to Roma women are relatively rare, which also results in ethnically non-sensitive social work practice. Understanding their ethnic reality and disclosure of exclusion are two of the core values of ethnically sensitive social work. The article reflects upon the private and public sphere where evidence of racism is documented. In private sphere, a Roma women is seen as a victim of discrimination in patriarchal relationship, in her low level of employment and poor educational skills. She is most commonly reduced to the role of a housewife, child carer etc. Examples of discrimination in the public sphere are seen in health condition of Roma women, in the relationships with health workers and in the field of reproductive rights. Roma women in comparison to Roma men and non-Roma women are recognized to be a more vulnerable social group, facing at least double discrimination – on the basis of gender and ethnicity. This all is relevant knowledge for ethnically sensitive social work. The author also appeals for a more clear and direct affirmative strategies for Roma women in Slovenia, which are, despite evident facts of their deprivation, which have been recognized in many research reports and political documents, still rare.
Ana Marija SobočanSecond parent adoptions in same-sex families in social work practice - Pg. 369Keywords: family regulation, homosexuality, social workers
The paper discusses social work in the field of child adoptions with special attention to second-parent adoptions in same-sex families. It shortly presents a debate on same-sex families, overviewing international and national research works and studies available. The paper also discusses the findings, collected during a training for social workers in the field of child adoptions, which took place at the Faculty for social work of the University in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in March and April 2011. It also presents some current legislative changes in the area of family matters. Its central focus is a discussion on challenges of social work in the field of – until know invisible – family realities.
Iva GajšekComparative view of foster care arrangements between Sovenia and Austria - Pg. 379Keywords: foster care, education of foster parents, duration of foster care, foster children, Law on Foster Care.
The basic purpose of the foster care is the protection and education of children who, for various reasons, can not live in their parents' family. The article deals with the comparison of foster care between the Republic of Slovenia and Austria. The differences and similarities in the number of children living in foster care, the duration of foster care, qualified foster care providers and the process of placing in foster care are shown. It appears that in Austria foster care providers are better educated than those in the Republic of Slovenia. Comparison of the number of children in foster care between Austria and Slovenia showed that there are more children in foster care in Slovenia than in Austria. There are also differences in the types of foster care between Slovenia and Austria. In Austria, there are two types of foster care: short term and long-lasting form of foster care. In Slovenia, there is no short term foster care. Short term foster care in Austria is intended only for children up to two years of age and for children who live with a foster family up to 12 weeks.
Manca Kaliman, Tadeja Knez, Nino RodeSelf-harm: The body as a means of communicating and overcoming the distress of adolescents - Pg. 389
REPORT FROM PRACTICE
Romana ZidarAlan R. Andreasen (2006), Social marketing in the 21st century - Pg. 411
Tamara Rape ŽibernaLarry Gonick, Woollcott Smith (1993), The cartoon guide to statistics - Pg. 415
Metka KuharAnalysis of the concept of family centres and selected cases of best practice for implementation in Slovenia - Pg. 297Keywords: family, children, parents, parenting, local community
The article presents the concept and characteristics of family centres as community meeting areas for parents with children and as public living rooms. Family centres are highly diverse community practices supporting families with preadolescent children in many European and non-European countries. It then compares three models of good practice of family centres: in Germany, Sweden, and Belgium. Despite the differences between the analysed models, the main emphasis in all three of them is on a place for the families to meet and socialise. The presentation and analysis are followed by reflections on the implementation of family centres in Slovenia.
Tadeja Kodele, Ines KvaternikCo-creation of preventive projects in school environment together with pupils - Pg. 307Keywords: prevention, school, co-creative working relationship, pupil’s involvement
School is an interesting place for prevention activities, because we can reach a lot of pupils at the same time. In the article, a project is presented in which preventive workshops were implemented in a way that enabled active involvement of pupils. Pupils were important coworkers. The evaluation in the middle of the project showed that leaders of preventive workshops established co-creative working relationship with pupils. When planning the workshops, leaders derived from pupil’s wishes and needs and together they researched answers on risk situations that were important for pupils. Results have shown that pupils were mostly satisfied with the implementation of preventive workshops. They were satisfied because they were able to influence the content and the way of functioning of preventive workshops, since they could express their opinions and dilemmas.
Ksenija Domiter ProtnerRole of school in detecting the exposure of children to domestic violence - Pg. 317Keywords: child, violence, family, protective factors, school
In recent decades, the scale and complexity of the exposure of children to domestic violence have been increasingly evident, and accordingly, many different disciplines have been paying growing attention to it. However, numerous cases of such violence still remain hidden. Slovene cultural environment, characterized by a high respect of family privacy, is marked by a rather stereotyped conception of family as a safe and loving community, making it harder to detect, and react properly to, cases of domestic violence. In the article, a short overview of characteristics, forms, and different consequences of the exposure of children to domestic violence is presented. Opportunities and limitations in detecting signs of domestic violence in school environment are described. It is argued that school professional staff (counsellors and teachers) should be well trained and supported to be able to cope with domestic violence. Also, an interinstitutional approach to solving this problem is strongly advocated.
Mitja Krajnčan, Urška EmeršičHow the quality of work of the employees influences the empowerment of the users in day care and work centres - Pg. 329Keywords: participation, self-determination, quality of work, employees
The purpose of this paper is to present "empowerment" as a modern concept in the treatment of adults with mental disabilities who are included into day care and work centres, and to stress the role of employees in identifying, exploring and emphasizing the strengths, resources and participation of choice and promotion of users' self-determination. The project examined whether employees implemented the concept of "empowerment", what they thought about the concept in general, and if there were any troubles in praxis. The project also focused on the employees’ viewpoint of some factors related to quality of working life and empowerment. The findings revealed that the concept of "empowerment" was being realized and the quality of work of the employees was of a high standard. The employees exposed some weaknesses, particularly the lack of taking an active part in planning and performing some services together with the users, their insufficient involvement in various stages of individual programmes, lack of employees’ collaboration with parents, of teamwork and supervision of employees. The concept of "empowerment" is well known to a high percentage (approximately 40%) of employees; it is best known to the employed, highly educated women working on leading positions.
Tomaž ŠkorjancTriple discrimination, invisibility and exclusion of old homosexual people in Slovenia - Pg. 339
REPORT ON A PROJECT
Vesna LeskošekResults of the ACES international project "Establishment of three-staged studies in six European countries" - Pg. 345
REPORT FROM PRACTICE
Nataša Meolic, Danijela CugMicro and macro level of implementing assistance for Roma in the Centre for Social Work Murska Sobota - Pg. 349
INTRODUCTION TO THEMATIC ISSUE
Darja ZaviršekAcademisation and internationalisation of social work: Establishment and development of the first joint European doctoral studies in social work and social politics Indosow - Pg. 157Keywords: international doctoral study of social work, neoliberalisation of study, supporting doctoral students, professional PhD, Bologna reform
The Bologna reform has, despite its negative effects, been beneficial to the formal level of social work studies in Europe. After 2000 the social work discipline faced an intensive development of graduate and postgraduate programmes, internationalisation and research activities. These processes also include the establishment and development of the first European doctoral studies in social work and social politics – Indosow. It all started in 2005, when the studies were initiated by the Faculty of social work at the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. The faculty created a consortium by linking higher education institutions from four European countries. The article describes the dilemmas of neoliberalisation of higher education and innovations, introduced by the first European doctoral programme of social work (2009) as it is the first international doctoral programme at the University of Ljubljana. The main characteristics of Indosow are academisation of social work and doctoral theses based on comparative and critical analysis. Nevertheless, the need to develop professional doctoral studies in social work corresponding to domestic (Slovenian) needs, still remains. Despite the harmonisation of higher education, the doctoral studies in Europe and in the world still face great differences in structure, form and teaching. The article presents some differences and some deficits in implementation of doctoral studies in Slovenia. One of these is a deficit in work with students, which should receive a quality academic support in the form of double and multiple mentorship.
Silvia Staub-BernasconiFrom occupational double to professional triple mandate: Science and human rights as foundations of professional social work - Pg. 173Keywords: ethics in social work, social work profession, double mandate, triple mandate
The main characteristics of a profession can’t be anymore the defensive, structural guardianship and administration of an exclusive knowledge if it wants to live up to the requirement of inter- and transdisciplinarity. This is no weakening of the identity of social work as discipline and profession, if it is clear about its object base and the correspondent action lines and necessary competences. Internationally, there seems to be a consensus that professional social work has to cope with social problems on different social levels – i.e. from the individual to the international level. Professionality means research and thus science-based interventions and an ethical codex containing – in the case of social work – social justice and human rights as its core values and norms. Taking this serious, social work hasn’t only a double-mandate of negotiation between a) society and its organisational representatives in social welfare and b) its clientele. It has a triple-mandate which comes from the profession itself. This conception of a profession gives way to the critical reflection of societal, but also client mandate, its change or refusal according to the professional code of ethics and even to self-determined mandates, especially in relation to human rights based interventions. This approach to the discipline and profession of social work is accompanied by the hope that this triple-mandate could end the endless debate, if social work has to solve individual problems or work for social change and if it is a profession or a radical social movement. It can’t be an either-or anymore but a skillful combination of both.
Sarah BanksFrom professional ethics to ethics in professional life: Reflections on learning and teaching in social work - Pg. 187Keywords: social professions, context, ethics cases, codes of ethics, ethical decision-making, emotional labour
The article offers some reflections on features of the traditional professional ethics literature, focusing on codes, conduct and rational decision-making in difficult cases. It is argued that this kind of approach offers a rather artificial, abstract and narrow conception of ethics. Consideration is then given to what might be the implications for learning and teaching of shifting emphasis towards a more embedded conception of ethics in professional life, with a focus on the commitment and character of professional practitioners and the specificities of the contexts in which they work. An excerpt from an interview with a social worker is used to examine the work of moral perception, empathy and imagination that are part of everyday ethical practice.
Christian StarkNeoliberalism - challenges for social work practice and ethics - Pg. 197Keywords: economization of social work, political social work, ethics in social work, welfare state, social policy
Neoliberalism can be described as an economic-political project of capitalist elites involving economization of all areas of life, privatization, economic globalization and deregulation. The article gives a short historical overview of the development of neoliberalism, the myths and tenets of the new neoliberal “religion” and the „manufacturing of consent”. Additionally, the article describes the consequences for social policy and social work, which include the reduction of welfare state, the widening of the gap between the rich and the poor, and also a development that can be outlined with the following key terms: economization of social work, work-fare instead of welfare. Finally the article describes the reaction of social work to this development. Some necessary anti-strategies are also discussed. The logic of social work is not the logic of profit. The market must not have the power to decide whether someone receives the necessary means for a life of human dignity. Social work is a central part of social policy and not only an instrument to alleviate or conserve poverty, or to lessen the consequences of neoliberal policy.
Ana Marija SobočanEthics in social work: Ethical practice and the autonomy of social work - Pg. 205Keywords: codes of ethics, values, social work profession, social work practice
The paper advocates the importance of reflecting and discussing ethics in social work, drawing from the growing production of literature, events and text-books abroad and the framework of social work practice (tasks in social work practice and its area of work). It also touches upon the importance and role of codes of ethics in social work, and shortly presents some aspects of these documents in different countries of the (predominantly Western) world. It presents some research, i.e. research findings in areas of ethical decision-making, ethical practice, use of codes of ethics etc. from different countries. In the third part it presents some viewpoints, findings and conclusions of a three-year research of experiences and perceptions of ethical dilemmas and situations of social work students in their field-work practice, which can serve for further planning of education and training in social work.
Petra VidemšekChanging of social incusion of people with personal experience of mental distress: From fight for rights to inclusion into research - Pg. 217Keywords: empowerment, users\' research, users’ movements
The developement of the service users’ movement is presented that contributed not only to their changed roles (from passive to active participants) but also to the efforts for the inclusion of users in the discourse about themselves. Social inclusion is broader, multidimensional concept, but in the article it is presented on micro level. In social work, social inclusion on micro level can be defined as participation in the process of planning social services. It is a part of the co-creation of the solution. Article is based on the work that has been writen by people with personal experience in the field of mental health and by hendicapped people (Chamberlin, Oliver, Morris, Beresford, Croft, Lamovec, Pečarič, Wallcraft). From their work we have been able to see that people with personal experience develop their own theory (disability theory), concepts (independent living, recovery) and that they organize anti discrimination campaigns. Besides that, review of users’ movement shows, that their efforts have changed and aimed to broader social inclusion in all spheres of their life, including education and research. Development of service users’ movement clearly shows that only inclusion in the planning of social services is not enough and that for broader changes people with personal experience should be involved into research as well. Decision for this is based on the theory of inclusion and on the premise about what we can do in social work practice to achieve this social inclusion.
Rasa NaujanienėControl of resources vs. clients’ needs within gerontological social work practice - Pg. 229Keywords: economical discourse, discourse analysis, Lithuania, practices
The aim of the article is to discuss how economic discourse influences social work practice in Lithuania, where access to social services is far from universal and officially based on strict definition of needs for care regarding to official documents. The main focus is on manifestation of contradiction between control of resources vs. clients’ needs. Together with globalization processes, there grows impact of economic discourse on social work practice. The study presented in the article is taken from the broader study conducted by the authoress. Contextual social construction was used herein as the theoretical background of the study with the aim to reveal the nature of gerontological social work discourse based on accounts by gerontological social workers about the process of entering clienthood. The transcribed text from the research interviews was analyzed by applying Willig version of Foucauldian discourse analysis. The analysis of two empirical cases is presented in the article. The revealed domination of moralization and blaming of client practices are discussed critically with consideration of economic discourse influence on social work practice.
Annamaria CampaniniBetween Scylla and Charybdis: The bright and dark sides of social work education in the academic sphere in Italy - Pg. 239
Helle StraussSocial work in the Nordic countries: Trends and shifts in education and policies - Pg. 245
Darja ZaviršekInterview with prof. Silvia Staub-Bernasconi - Social work is both political and professional at the same time - Pg. 253
Ana Marija Sobočan, Heidrun WulfekühlerInterview with Prof. Sarah Banks - Ethical dilemmas, anyone interested in? - Pg. 263
Maja Kutin, Ana Marija SobočanInterview with Dr. Merav Moshe Grodofsky - And the next day the Israelis and Palestinians have been sitting together - Pg. 269
Jelka ZornDarja Zaviršek, Birgit Rommelspacher, Silvia Staub-Bernasconi (2010), Ethical Dilemmas in Social Work - Pg. 275
Romana ZidarVesna Leskošek (2009), Theories and Methods of Social Work - Pg. 277
Romana ZidarShulamit Ramon, Darja Zaviršek (2009), Critical Edge Issues in Social Work and Social Policy - Pg. 281
Ana Marija SobočanAlexander Kjerulf (2009), Happy Hour is 9 to 5 - Pg. 287
Bogdan LešnikOn the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the journal Social Work - Pg. 79
Ines Kvaternik, Klavdija KustecCooperation between parents and school: Establishing a collaborative work relationship in school - Pg. 81Keywords: parental involvement in school, the role of parents in school, individual original work of the aid project, co-creation model, learning in the classroom
The article deals with cooperation and the role of parents in individual original work projects of aid which are carried out in the project "The successful integration of children and youth with special needs in raising and education in the period 2008–2011: Background for further development and the implementation of teaching concepts of work problems in elementary school". Analysis of the process of cooperation and involvement of parents shows how to establish work relationship and collaboration in school and in particular how parents are involved in that relationship. This leads to a new paradigm in the process of education, which primarily requires redefining the dominant roles in the school, which ensures that the process of education, especially school work, takes place mainly in school, in the class. The process increases the role of children and parents.
Heikki SuhonenOlder problem drinkers: A challenge for social work in the future - Pg. 91Keywords: alcohol problems, ageing, older people, demographical changes, gerontological social work
Problem drinking of older people is a challenge for social work in general and for gerontological social work in particular, because traditionally both ageing and problem drinking have been dominated by approaches of medicalization. Many other orientations and methods of social work are useful with older problem drinkers, too. Social workers should operate by using approaches of both social work of substance abusers and gerontological social work. In the society where medicalization dominates, approaches to problem drinking, treatment of older alcohol and substance abusers is seen too often only from the viewpoint of diseases, risks and limitations. Ageing itself victimises people. Social work offers possibilities to advocate and empower older problem drinkers in the society. In social work with older people, ethical problems are confronted too, because these clients have already a long life behind them and fewer years left. This article is a short view to frame older people’s problem drinking and to open larger discussion about the details of this problematic, especially in the frame of traditional social work with alcohol abusers and gerontological social work, too.
Katarina Kompan Erzar, Tatjana Rožič, Barbara SimoničRole and importance of attachment in child development in surrogate families - Pg. 103Keywords: foster care, adoption, surrogate family, attachment
Work experiences with foster and adoptive families are presented. Foster care and adoption both from the viewpoint of the child, as well as of adults, are evaluated. Distress of children (because of trauma or developmental deficits) often opens old and unhealed wounds in adoptive or foster parents from their own childhood. The same wounds are namely those which in these adults facilitate compassion for abandoned children. At the same time, they can mean bitterness for parents and for children, if they outburst from difficult relationships between them. It is the coincidence of helplessness of guardians and foster parents on the one side, and growing up of foster or adopted children on the other side, which will decide, whether or not these children could finally form secure attachment bonds and heal their attachment injury caused by their biological parents. Otherwise they could forever remain without a "real" family. Parents, who decide for such a noble gesture, and children, who "risk" once again to trust adults, deserve the most careful and effective support and monitoring, which makes it possible to enjoy more fully a secure attachment and belonging, given by a family. From the perspective of attachment theory, attention is drawn to a few key points in the process, where from an "alternative" a "real" family will develop.
Metod ŠuligojStandards and selected elements of quality of work life in hotel industry - Pg. 113Keywords: hotel industry, standards, work conditions, quality of work life, employees, managers
In theoretical part of this research, working conditions that affect the quality of work life (QWL) in general and in the context of hotel operations in particular are identified. The research shows that bureaucracy does not have only a positive impact on the work of employees. The concept of bureaucracy is characterized by existence of standards (bureaucratic organizations have standards). Empirical part highlights a short list of elements of QWL in hotel industry, such as autonomous decision-making, solving conflicts with guests, innovation and control. Using bivariate analysis, the author tries to find out whether the QWL of employees in bureaucratic organizations is worse than in non-bureaucratic ones. The results do not suggest that bureaucracy negatively affects the working life of employees in hotel industry, because there is no statistically significant difference between organizations with standards and those without them. Moreover, considering selected indicators, QWL in the Slovenian hotel industry cannot be evaluated as bad.
REPORTS FROM PRACTICE
Nina Mešl, Klavdija KustecHelp for a pupil with learning difficulties: Comparison of theoretical concepts and practices in Slovenia to an experience of a working visit to England - Pg. 125
Suzana Oreški, Srečko Brumen, Andreja Štepec, Bogdan Dobnik, Edo Belak, Tatjana Gričar, Katarina TomažičThe NGOs campaign in the field of mental health: The truth is in the eye of the beholder - Pg. 133
Viktorija Pečnikar Oblak, Metoda NovakHow to improve the quality of life of residents in Care and Working Centre Tončka Hočevar - Pg. 141
Metoda NovakAgeing of people with mental disorders: Experiences from Care and Working Centre Tončka Hočevar - Pg. 145
Andreja Kavar VidmarJean-Pierre Leguay (2009), Pauvres et marginaux au moyen age (Reveži in obrobneži v srednjem veku) - Pg. 149
Miro SamardžijaEthnic minorities in the grip of autochthonism, identity and integration - Pg. 1Keywords: ethno cultural groups, autochthonism, integration, ethnic identity, Slovenia
The article deals with autochthonism which as a conception emerged in the Slovenian Constitution at the end of the 80s in the article 64 and consolidated position of the Italian and Hungarian national minorities in Slovenia. The article aims to demonstrate that such usage of the autochthonism – as a constitutional notion designed for minority rights protection – is, on the one hand, unnecessary and, on the other hand, even discriminatory against those national minorities which are still excluded from Slovenia’s legal order and from the policies of recognising ethnic minorities. Primarily we are talking about constitutionally unrecognized national minorities from the regions of ex-Yugoslavia. Furthermore, the article deals with two key, and at the same time, quite problematic notions significant for the national minority issues: ethnic identity and integration.
Nina Mešl, Tadeja KodeleCollaborative work relationship in school: From thinking about the usefulness of the concept to the beginning of its use - Pg. 13Keywords: learning difficulties, school success, protective factor, cooperation, action research
Many research findings, dealing with the connection of school success and the success in somebody's further life, emphasize the importance of positive experiences in coping with challenges in school environment. As a respectful and responsible pupil's ally, the teacher certainly plays the main role in co-creating new knowledge and in empowering the child as well. The interim analysis of the project »Professional foundations for further development and implementation of the concept 'learning difficulties in primary school'« shows that teachers see co-creation in a work relationship with children, having learning difficulties, as a good concept – not only on the conceptual level, but also on the level of its use at school. All the participants in this unique work project of help, where help and support are co-created, stress the progress in collaboration, show that steps towards solutions are easily agreed upon and that the child's voice is heard. The main concern about the (un)usefulness of the concept refers to the systematic obstacles connected with time and organizational problems, which could impede the implementation of this model into the school system. On the other hand, teachers support the idea of including as many other pupils as possible to this unique work project of help.
Klavdija KustecArtistic means of expression in social work - Pg. 27Keywords: artistic means of expression, psycho(bio)social support and help, paradigms, competences
This paper presents a summarised historical development and use of artistic means of expression in diverse fields of work with people. It gives a short description of predominant models or approaches – the medical model and the social work model – and within this context paradigmatic shifts in social work, which are important for work with artistic means of expression are shown. Special attention is devoted to successfulness or effectiveness of work with artistic means of expression and to required competences of social workers who use artistic means of expression in their work.