INTRODUCTION TO THEMATIC ISSUE
Roman Kuhar, Ana M. SobočanFamily - the basic unit ... of ideological conflicts - Pg. 277
Metka Mencin Čeplak, Roman KuharFights for equality - From discrimination of homosexuality to redefinition of family - Pg. 283Keywords: same-sex partnership, same-sex family, legislature, homosexuality, gay and lesbian movement
The new proposal of Family Code in Slovenia is the fifth bill, aiming at (among others) legal protection of same-sex partnerships and same-sex families in Slovenia. Just like previous bills – some of them never made it to the parliamentary procedure – it causes a lot of protests. The key dominator of these upheavals is the discursive interpolation of “nature” and “natural” into arranging social relations (such as partnerships and families). This argument is then used as an excuse for discriminatory treatment, based on one’s sexual orientation. The history of several attempts to legalize same-sex partnership and families in Slovenia is presented and the key discourses, which emerged alongside, are analysed. The analysis shows that the new proposal of the Family Code does not introduce something, which can be classified as strange and new. It is rather a consequence of more than 25 years of endeavors for equality in Slovenia regardless of one’s sexual orientation.
Bogdan LešnikHate speech in psychoanalytical perspective - Pg. 299Keywords: psychosis, sadism, moralism, sexism, racism, homophobia
Looking at hate speech in psychoanalytical perspective reveals as its most striking feature the achievement of a certain satisfaction best described as sadistic. This feature is analysed in the light of Freud’s drive theory and it is shown that the three typical forms of hate speech, the sexist, the racist and the homophobic speech, are perfectly complementary and combine into a pattern that binds satisfaction to a value-based splitting of the object and the sexualisation of the social status. In the heart of this pattern, there is the sexist assumption of the passive, inferior “female” enjoyment that arouses the subject, so that the latter repudiates it in the way analogous to psychosis, and instead develops a dominant, aggressive attitude deemed “masculine”, which serves to ward off castration anxiety. Because of these characteristics hate speech can never be rational and a compromise with it will prevent any rational politics of inclusion and non-discrimination.
Barbara RajgeljRelationships in the same-sex families - where do we stand and in which direction can we move? - Pg. 305Keywords: family law, Family Code, parenthood, partnership, same-sex families, discrimination
The analysis of existing Slovenian legislation shows that in comparison to heterosexual families same-sex families are discriminated in the field of family law as well as in other parts of their legal lives, such as inheritance law, law of damages, criminal law, tax law, labour and social security law. Irrespective of the fact that the case-law, adopted by Slovenian courts, progressively eliminates inequality in different legal fields, a comprehensive new legislation is needed to reduce legal uncertainty and to guarantee foreseeable regulation of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Slovenian Constitutional and Supreme Court decisions direct adoption of the new Family Code, in which the legislator has almost no other option than to enforce absolute equality of same-sex and heterosexual families.
Neža KogovšekLooking for legal reasons for recognising equal rights to same-sex partners ajnd their families - Pg. 319Keywords: discrimination, sexual orientation, European Court of Human Right, adoption, marriage
One of the key questions arising in the process of passing of the Family Code is whether or not the law requires full equality of same-sex partners with different-sex ones. On the international law level there are no clear and explicit requirements for the states to ensure full equality in relation to marriage and joint adoption, as the European Court of Human Rights and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU leave this area to the domestic legislations of the states. For further development of the international law the legal situations within the states are therefore crucial as the European Court stresses that it is impossible to ignore the emerging consensus in Europe that same-sex partnerships require some kind of legal recognition. However, the international law recognizes same-sex couples' access to a large set of rights deriving from partnerships as well as protection from discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. Irrespective of international obligations of the states, the analysis of the situation of same-sex partners and their families indicates that limiting access to equal rights is sistemically intolerable and causes legal inconsistency.
Raquel (Lucas) PlateroPopping the question - Politics and the same-sex marriages in Spain - Pg. 331Keywords: intersectionality, same-sex marriage, Spain, policy design, public policies
Spain has captured international attention with the approval of the legislation allowing same-sex couples to marry and adoption rights (Law 13/2005). This has caused large controversy along with positive recognition. Law 13/2005 reforming the Civil Code has been portrayed as the symbol of equality, challenging the catholic and conservative past. Nonetheless, it has also shown that designing neutral legislation has negative impacts. No concrete remarks were included, resulting in discriminatory implementation for lesbians and foreigners for instance. Policy design matters and a closer look on gender and intersectional impact on the Spanish Law 13/2005 can provide some hints. The current available data on marriage and divorce in same-sex marriages is analysed and some reflexions on the side effects of neutral policy design are provided.
Alenka ŠvabWho's afraid of (diversity of) families? - Sociological view on contemporary family life - Pg. 341Keywords: families, family pluralisation, definition of family, parenthood, children
Contemporary family life is characterized by changes and trends which lead to pluralisation of family and family life. Families are changing in form, in way of life, in structural aspects (changes in parenthood, gender relations, division of labour etc.) as well as in family life course. These changes are influenced by broader social changes of late modernity as well as by some demographic changes. These trends challenge the ideology of modern heterosexual conjugal or nuclear family and open a series of conceptual questions, among others the question of defining family (in sociological and legal sense). In sociological evaluation of contemporary family trends, it is claimed that diversity of families is a reaction to broader social changes, meaning that family as a modern institution preserves its vital functions and is in this sense not in a “crisis” as some conservative ideological discourses want to prove.
Nina Tuš ŠpilakTreating same-sex families in Slovenian kindergartens - Pg. 351Keywords: same-sex family, heteronormativity, preschool education, curriculum, research findings
In heterosexual environment found in educational systems, same-sex families face many challenges. Their position in Slovenian kindergartens is dealt with. Theoretical part encompasses findings of different research papers in the field of homosexuality within the educational area and analysis of kindergarten curriculum. Empirical data were gathered from preschool teachers and assistant preschool teachers in 2010 by the author of the article. Results of curriculum analysis indicate that discussion on same-sex families could be included in educational process on various levels. The key finding of the research is that Slovenian kindergartens are, despite clear goals of the curriculum, still predominantly heterosexually oriented and that preschool teachers and assistant preschool teachers do not include the themes of same-sex families in their discussions with children (75 % of research respondents). Guidelines on how homosexuality and same-sex families issues could be included in the kindergarten environment are presented.
Elke JansenGermany and its rainbow families - Main results from the first representative research about families with two mothers or two fathers - Pg. 361Keywords: same-sex families, German research, registered partnership, lgbt rights, gays and lesbians
Almost until recently, a substantial part of our society, including homosexual individuals, has found it unimaginable to think of parenting in connection to homosexuality. In the last years, nevertheless, this has been changing in a number of European countries. On the one hand, this tells us that younger generations of gay men and lesbian women do not automatically give up the idea of parenthood and family life when they come out of the closet. A survey, conducted at the beginning of the new millennium in the most populous German region (North Rhine-Westphalia), has provided us with information, that every second young lesbian and every third young gay imagine a part of their life with children. On the other hand, the so called rainbow families (lesbian mothers, gay fathers and their children) are more and more visible in the media and everyday life. While in the 90s rainbow families were only a topic of the yellow press, nowadays we can read about gay and lesbian couples in reports on different types of families in respectable German journals. In the article the results of a German research, that explored the life in rainbow families, and the media and political responses to its results, are presented.
Elisabetta RuspiniItalian homosexual fathers between stereotypes and desire for paternity - Pg. 373Keywords: gay fatherhood, homosexuality, homosexual fathers, Italy, stereotypes
Some preliminary findings based on an ongoing and self-funded research project on gay parenthood in Italy are presented. The research involves two small groups of gay fathers: those who had children in the context of heterosexual relationships and those who became fathers in the context of their gay identity. The results from the study may have implications for both social policy and educational programmes. Gay fathers are influenced (both personally and in social relationships) by negative stereotypes about gay men and parenting. They identify many complex issues related to coming out with children and spouses. Gay men who have children after coming out, face different, but no less challenging issues: most significant are the complexities involved in acquiring children through adoption, surrogacy or co-parenting arrangements.
Maja ŠorliSame-sex families - By innovation to cultural diversity - Pg. 381
Maja PanFeminist-queer a priori of researches on homophobic violence - Pg. 389
REPORT FROM PRACTICE
Tamara PiklEffects of family environment on poverty and social exclusion of children - Pg. 201Keywords: family, material deprivation, education
Poverty means violation of human rights. In the case of children, it is an even deeper problem as it affects their future, having long-term consequences not only for individuals but also for the society in general. The analysis of internationally comparable indicators of social exclusion (Laekens indicators) shows that the level of poverty risk is highest in single parent families, in families with both unemployed parents, and in families where both parents have a lower education level. The social exclusion of children is reflected as material deprivation (holidays, owning a computer, food, living conditions, etc.) and as poorer education of children, because children whose parents are poor often have worse learning results and consequently reach a lower level of education. In Slovenia, there is relatively low children’s poverty risk level but nonetheless numerous improvements in some areas are necessary as children’s rights are far from being fully implemented.
Tamara Rape ŽibernaJob satisfaction in a public institution - Pg. 217Keywords: job satisfaction, public institution, social work in working environment, burnout
Some of the basic concepts relating to job satisfaction are discussed, such as planning work, motivational theories, burnout, personnel management, human resources management and social work in working environment. A case study of a public institution in Slovenia was carried out in 2006. The institution is one of 62 similar institutions in which mostly social workers are employed. Social workers in this institution are least satisfied with their salary, volume of their work, working conditions and reputation of their work. On the other hand, they are very satisfied with the relations among co-workers and with freedom at work. Job satisfaction in the analyzed institution was (compared with similar institutions) relatively low. Special aspects of dissatisfaction are discussed and some suggestions are proposed.
Jana Mali, Lidija OvčarLessons from life stories of older rural population - Pg. 229Keywords: older people, rural population, care services, risks, social networks
As the rate of older population in developed countries is increasing, more attention is paid to phenomena of old age and ageing. However, not enough attention is paid to older rural population although it is particularly vulnerable, pensions being low and social care services in rural areas underdeveloped. In interviews, individuals from older rural population openly admit that they feel poor and that they have to be very careful with their money. Those living in homes for older people cannot afford to pay care in their institution, therefore relatives or municipality need to help them. Relatives provide important social support, not only for those still living in domestic environment, but also for those living in an institution. All respondents think neighbourhood relations are crucial. They are familiar with nursing care in community, with homes for older people and with home help care, but they feel they are too expensive.
Gabi Čačinovič VogrinčičThe language of collaborative social work - Pg. 239Keywords: systemic social work, co-creating help, work relationship, ethics of participation, strength perspective
The central question of the article is: why are the development and use of social work language as a language of science and profession of social work important. In social work, a new, autonomous language is emerging, a language that translates well all the steps taken in the processes of help, envisaged as a co-creation based on ethics of participation and strenght perspective. Peter Lüssi’s systematic theory of social work is presented as the first important theory of doing and is related to contemporary, postmodern concepts of social work in a work relationship, bringing together appreciative and responsible allies (social workers) and experts on experience. The main thesis of the article can be summed up as: in science and profession of social work we need respectful steps and a disciplined use of social work language in theory and practice, at all times, without exceptions. The arguments in favour of the thesis are: social work language verbally expresses the way we do things; it brings forth changes; it is an appreciative language of co-creators in the process of help, taking into consideration strenght perspective; and it plays an important role in co-creation of joint projects with other professions.
Metka KnezCommunication and obtaining information for deafblind people - Pg. 257
REPORT FROM PRACTICE
Brigita KuderCreating personalized communication with mentally disordered people - Pg. 267
INTRODUCTION TO THEMATIC ISSUE
Špela UrhEtnical (un)sensitivity in education for social work - Pg. 73Keywords: ethnicity, Roma people, rasism, ethnical unsensitivity, education for social work
Antiracist social work theory and practice in Slovenia are still at a relatively early stage of their development. The lack of an explicit public discourse about exclusion has constructed and maintained racist practice in the field of social work. The effects are still evident in today's practice. The reason is to be found in the reluctance of ethnicity issues in the field of education for social work, especially in the “old” study programme (from 1955 to 1992). The article is a part of a doctoral dissertation and explicitly discusses a sensitive topic in social work i.e. the contribution of social work practice to social exclusion of members of ethnic minorities in Slovenia. The main thesis is that social work education in Slovenia has neglected ethnic sensitive discourses. This is shown from three main methodological perspectives: analysis of diploma works of social work students until September 2008, analysis of study literature from 1955 until September 2008, and analysis of a questionnaire with lecturers and assistants from the Faculty of Social Work in Ljubljana.
Darja ZaviršekEthnisation and patologisation of Roma people and Roma communities: Anthropological and social work concepts - Pg. 85Keywords: ethnisation, pathologisation, »difference«, social distance, transcultural psychiatry
Theoretical concepts within antiracist social work are dealt with: ethnisation and pathologisation of ethnic minorities, the construction of »otherness«, the »difference« and the processes of “social distance”. Ethnisation is a process where the characteristics and specificities, including the needs of an ethnic group are seen exclusively as ethnic markers and ethnicity itself as the marker of otherness. Pathologisation is a process where the specific characteristics of individuals and groups are seen as natural, inborn, and different medical and psychological categories are used in order to define these “inborn” specificities. The minorities are seen as being prone to illnesses, pathological violence, and lesser intelligence. These socially constructed individualised and collectivised specificities are used also for explaining social vulnerability such as poverty, exclusion and marginalisation.
Alenka Janko SpreizerWith an engaged anthropology against racism and domination over Roma people - Pg. 99Keywords: Roma people, social anthropology of Roma people, public anthropology, analytic of racial domination
A transfer of knowledge concerning aspects of ethnic or racial domination against Roma people is described. The author’s participation in demonstrations and her efforts to transfer the informed knowledge about Roma people in public in Slovenia, are analyzed. Many scientists of culture and society of Roma people were more or less involved in contesting, and engaged in discussions on the stereotipization of Roma people. Different definitions of public activities are given, which are known in anthropology as public anthropology. They deal with transfer of anthropological knowledge to the general public. Critical studies of Roma people are then briefly presented. The author’s own anthropological engagement in the case of the Strojan family is analysed. The central thesis of this article is that efforts to transfer the informed knowledge of studies examining various aspects of Roma life, is essential, being the only way to prevent the operation of mechanisms of racial domination.
Julija SardelićMulticulturalism and position of Roma community in Slovenia - Pg. 109Keywords: minorities, late modernity, the Other, identity, liberal multiculturalism
Theoretical questions about the characteristics of society in the late modernity, as they were perceived by prominent sociologists like Anthony Giddens, Ulirch Beck and Zygmunt Bauman, are dealt with. While Giddens and Beck would agree that individual's liberation from the structures of the traditional order (from the solid identity categories such as gender, class and ethnicity) is important for the post modern society, Bauman insists, that the characteristic of this society is, on the one hand, individualisation, on the other hand however, a re-birth of communalistic ideologies is emerging. Two of these ideologies are nationalism and fascism. When we become aware that the human societies are not ethnically homogeneous, we are starting debate on multiculturalism, which is also a subject of this article. In fact, the critique of liberalism given by Charles Taylor and his early communitarian multiculturalism is expressed. Liberal multiculturalism, a paradigm brought by Will Kymlicka, is analysed. The author then applies all the theoretical presumptions on the analysis of the position of Roma community in Slovenia. Their position shows many flaws of theories dealing with late modernity. The fact is that Slovenia is less successful in implementing political guidelines of liberal multiculturalism, which would offer adequate protection of the deprivileged minority groups.
Majda HrženjakRoma people in Ljubljana: Uncertain legal statuses as one of the reasons of radical social exclusion - Pg. 121Keywords: Roma people, migration, legal statuses, citizenship, the erased
The research study of Roma immigrants from former Yugoslavia to Ljubljana (it represents the first study of immigrant, so called non-autochthonous Roma people in urban area in Slovenia), points to their uncertain legal statuses as not enough salient issue in comparison with the issues of education, housing, cultural identity, and employment for instance. It identifies several reasons why legal statuses are problematic for Roma people in Ljubljana: immigration, system of marriages, illiteracy and erasure of approx. 22.000 citizens originating from former Yugoslavia in 1991, after secession of Slovenia. It points to the difficulties with which Roma population in Ljubljana is faced when pursuing employment, due to their uncertain legal statuses. In concluding part, several examples of activist projects are presented as examples of good practices which can assist Roma population in acquiring legal statuses. Political solution is recommended as well – the radical legalization of resident and working permits for Roma population. This would diminish social exclusion experienced by Roma people in Ljubljana, as well as by Roma people in EU countries.
Jelka Zorn, Ana Marija SobočanA right to stay: The case of the settlement at Koželjeva street in Ljubljana - Pg. 133Keywords: Roma people, Roma settlement, research, Municipality of Ljubljana, ethnic discrimination
The right to live in an urban area, with accessible public infrastructure, is discussed; in this case of Roma people in Ljubljana. The settlement at Koželjeva street is examined, which carries a stigma due to its Roma inhabitants, deficient infrastructure and the characteristics of a slum. It is discussed how the space and its meanings influence the self-image of inhabitants of the settlement and their inclusion in the broader society, as well as the research process. The findings are derived from a field-research, theories on social capital, “social-mix” or multi-culturality and the right to inclusion and a place to live.
Mojca Hribar, Danijela GutićConditionality of receiving social assistance for Roma as a form of institutional racism - Pg. 143
Anja Pirec, Tilen Recko, Jana Bedrač, Ana SchmidtDo you find this fun or important ?: Hate speech and intolerance at the student forum of the Faculty of Social Work - Pg. 155
REPORTS FROM PRACTICE
Špela UrhCreating strategies for preventing and overcoming the social exclusion of Roma in the municipality of Grosuplje - Pg. 165
Jasmina ZamanPromotion of tolerance as a way of overcoming prejudice and marginalization - Pg. 171
Marina Novak RabzeljContribution of CSD Krško to overcome institutional racism against Roma - Pg. 177
Alenka KošakRoma children in primary school Leskovec at Krško - an example of good practice - Pg. 181
Špela UrhLeida Schuringa (2005), Community work with Roma inclusion - Pg. 189
Nina MešlSocial work with family: Use and co-creation of knowledge in practice - Pg. 1Keywords: espoused theories, theories-in-use, reflexive approach working relationship, family
The use of theoretical knowledge in social work that can mean a support for action in complex practical situations is not consistent enough. The premise that competent practitioners usually know more than they can tell, can also be transferred to social work; yet in social work one further step needs to be taken. We need knowledge, words to name our work; this is the only way in which co-participation in work process can be provided which leads to good outcomes. Different directions should be researched in order for us to be able to move closer to the explicitness of our actions. The presented research on the use of theoretical knowledge in practice of social work with family means a contribution to this aim. The results show the gap between theories of actions that social workers defined as the espoused theories and their theories-in-use. Possible step to more explicit use of theoretical concepts, to more competent action in practice, is the use of presented model of social work with family. The model is opened, offering social workers a choice of different theoretical concepts which they would reflexively use in concrete practical cases – in a way that would for families, their members and the social worker mean a co-creation of good results in a unique working project of help, and at the same time contributing to the development of a useful theory for the practice of social work with family.
Federico FariniPaths of hybridization through the invention of new cultural forms: Practices of participation to host social processes by immigrant adolescents attending high schools in Modena - Pg. 11Keywords: marginalization, identity negotiation, social evolution, integration, immigrants
The paper is based on data collected during spring 2006, through qualitative group interviews addressed to 48 immigrant adolescents attending technical and business oriented high schools in Modena, Italy, previously involved in the European project COMICS (Children Of Migrants Inclusion Creative Systems). The paper highlights that participation in relevant social processes of the host society doesn't require neither non-critical engagement in its cultural forms nor fully sharing of the meanings of cultural symbols. Social participation is connected to non-stop processes of negotiation and mixing of symbols' meanings and cultural forms, through intercultural communication. As categories like “integration” and “adaptation” seem to oversimplify the shades of social participation, the paper aims to report the variety in meanings, expectations and problems of the integration paths followed by young immigrants, accordingly to their autonomous self-expression.
Borut GrabrijanProgrammes of maternity homes and women's shelters - 17 years after their establishment - Pg. 21Keywords: public social protection programmes, violence, family, non-governmental organizations
The re-establishment of maternity homes in Slovenia began after 1990. After more than 17 years of maternity homes’ activities and women’s shelters programmes, after the completion of the first National Social Protection Strategy Programme, and on the basis of the "Resolution on National Social Assistance Programme and Social Services 2006–2010", the network, in this domain, is practically developed on the entire Slovenian territory. With the adopted Resolution, the maternity homes and women’s shelters became – after the verification of the programme – public social-protection programmes. In 2009, these programmes included 373 beds in total, while the plan of the Resolution states altogether 350 beds in the network of maternity homes and women’s shelters. The quantity indicators of these programmes are the number of beds and implementation of the stated programmes in regions. Because of a number of cases of violence against women and of domestic violence, one may hear that the stated number of beds may be insufficient. However, the 2007 data, collected by people who implement the programmes of women’s shelters and maternity homes, show different structural changes. In 2007, women’s shelters were in average only 90% occupied and the number for maternity homes is even lower, about 80%. In contrast, certain features (age, single status, number of children) of the users show important changes in comparison with the users from the time these programmes started.