Darja Zaviršek, Jelka ŠkerjancAnalysis of the Position of Excluded Social Groups in Slovenia and Proposals for the Decrease of their Exclusions in the System of Social Care: Research Report - Pg. 387Keywords: excluded social groups, empowerment, inclusion, living in community.
The research, commissioned by RS Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs, analyses the problem of economically, socially and culturally excluded social groups in the Slovene system of social care. A detailed analysis is carried out of the position of women, people with problems in mental development, aged people, children who experience abuse, and people with special needs. The authors describe the main contradictions that maintain the process of exckision and suggest proposals for change, e. g., individualised care planning, independent advocacy service, mechanisms of complaint, pluralisation of service offerers, deinstitutionalisation, revision of the care system, and direct financing of care in the community.
Marino KačičCommunication, Action and Counselling in Interaction with the Blind and Weak-sighted - Pg. 421Keywords: blindness, crisis, rehabilitation, curative relationship.
The author points out the importance, from the standpoint of effective psycho-social counselling to the client and his or her family on the one hand and social fulfilment of the professional on the other, of the relationship between the social worker and a blind or weak-sighted client. He elaborates on three areas: (1) how to understand the relationship in a working context, (2) communication between the "seeing" and the client, (3) what the professional and the client, respectively, bring into the inevitable interaction. The introductory part presents the erroneous idea that the efficiency of social work increases without limits along with the optimisation of counselling procedures, technical means and money. Next, the author argues that the efficiency of the helping professions increases significantly, if the building of a relationship is included with the classical working procedures. The usual troubles in communication with the blind and weak-sighted people are listed, such as may lead to misunderstanding, discontent, or even inefficient help. The experience of the person who is blind or loosing sight is described, as well as the ways to the rehabilitation of the individual and the family. In conclusion, the alternative is presented for the social worker to choose between professionally "polite" and the "curative" relationship, together with their advantages and disadvantages for the client and the professional.
Stanija IvajnšičSocial Worker and the Aged Person - Pg. 433Keywords: old people\'s needs, decision-making, expectations of social work, voluntary social work.
The mission of social care (and social work) is to increase life opportunities for its clients, without prescribing "the best solution". However, old people, in particular those who are dependent upon others, do not have many possibilities to make decisions. The current network of institutions and supply of help at home does not meet the needs of the growing number of old people, which enhances the significance of voluntary social work. The latter combines all the methods of professional work and expands the professional roles of social workers. The author carried out a quick enquiry, in which 40 aged social work users selected three most important out of five desirable characteristics of social workers. The main choice was trustfulness, professional expertise, and the ability to listen.
Miha LobnikE. D. Rothblum, L. A. Bond (1996), Preventing Heterosexism and Homophobia. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications - Pg. 441
Srečo DragošGetting Older in the Light of Social Capital (in Slovenia) - Pg. 241Keywords: social networks, trust, opinion polls.
The quality of life of older population and the capacity to solve problems that emerge in this period of life significantly depend on the quantity of social capital in society. Since individuals cannot create it without contacts with others, the kind of social networks and trust that are available in Slovenia cannot be unimportant. The paper presents, on the basis of opinion polls, a number of data and entailing trends from which the disposal of social capital in Slovenia may be inferred. Non-activated human resources of the unemployed, contentment with social networks and the material state, general trust in people and especially in friends (with regard to sex, age, education, geographic location, religion, political preferences), changing confidence in state and civic institutions, voluntary practices, state of health, and trust in medical services - all these are indirect indicators of social capital, and it is upon them that life in later periods will depend as well. The data show that is the disposal of social capital is not optimal in our society, and in some dimensions its quantity is rather critical.
Vida Miloševič ArnoldProfessional Roles of Social Workers with Aged People - Pg. 253Keywords: social work fields, social work mission, old person\'s rights.
In introduction, the author lists the models of social work practice and the development of professional roles of social workers. She presents the directions that have emerged in the field of gerontological social work. Professional roles of social workers are then analysed from the standpoint of their suitability for work with aged people. The services of Slovene social security are listed, together with the various professional roles they offer to social workers.
Bernard Stritih, Miran MožinaNarcissistic Disorder, Mental Crises, and Ecological Supportive Aid in Old Age - Pg. 263Keywords: personality disorder, social work, diagnostics of mental disorder, psychotherapy.
The features of narcissistic disorder and personality disorder in old age are presented on two cases of aged people, one from the authors' practice and one from literature. Narcissism is taken as an important dimension on the scale of mental health. According to numerous investigations, many people who work in helping professions have a personal experience of deficient and destructive narcissism, so that its research is important for clients and helpers alike. The paper presents the basic frame of recognising (diagnosing) personality disorder. For the choice of helping method, however, the type of disorder is less decisive than the difficulty it presents. The assessment of that difficulty is based on the assessment of the level of psychosocial functioning (by help of the GAF scale). The clients who turn for help to social workers are in the main from the middle levels of the scale (codes 30 to 60). In a recent work (1999), the Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist Jürg Willi has presented the idea of "ecological supportive aid" which, in the authors' view, is very useful in social work for help to the people with personality disorder and other more difficult clients. After presenting the key concepts of that idea (co-evolution, personal niche, interaction efficiency, collusion, pseudodidactic attempts), the authors point out that personality disorder may be seen as an attempt at self-healing and as a form of (co)evolutionary adjustment. The ecological survey of the sub-group of histrionic, narcissistic and borderline personality disorders is followed, in conclusion, by a few possible starting points and directions for ecological supportive aid to the people with narcissistic disorder in old age.
Gabi Čačinovič VogrinčičFamily and an Old Person - Pg. 287Keywords: delegation, working group, personal niche, social work working relationship, family project of help.
The first part of the paper defines, on the basis of three family psychology models, the changes a family needs to undergo for the project of facing one (or more) of its members' old age. Stierlin's concept of delegation, Lidz's model of what needs to be assured in a family community, and Bion's model of working group point to important themes about which the family can reach an agreement. In the second part, the social work project of reorganisation of life with an old person is defined. The first step is the establishment of a working agreement. In the process of reaching the instrumental definition of a problem, the whole family is addressed, and all the members, involved in the problem, examine their feasible part in its solution.
Srečo DragošSocial Networks and Old Age - Pg. 293Keywords: social work, phenomenology, social policy, health, ageism, feminism.
Growing old has an impact on social networks, on the choice of people we meet, and on the way we do it. Even more importantly, however, the reverse is also true - social networks have an impact on growing old. That impact is discussed in detail in the second half of the paper, where relations between networks and their resources of support on the one hand and sex, psychological, physical and medical indicators of old population on the other are presented. The findings are relevant for all who work with people, in particular for social workers, but also for the state strategy of developing services for the aged (for social policy). Growing old is not only a social and sociological but also a biological, cultural, economical and phenomenological phenomenon; its complexity is pointed out in the first half of the paper, where in particular the phenomenological conceptions of Dasein, of growing old and of time are discussed.
Jože RamovšInter-generational Links, Self-help, and the Quality of Old Age - Pg. 315Keywords: social gerontology, integral anthropology, self-help, self-organisation.
The opening thesis is that the starting point for social gerontology is integral anthropology. The first part presents a comprehensive image of humans in view of six dimensions in transverse section, three periods of life in longitudinal development, and oscillation in quantity-quality polarisation. This is followed by a presentation of the systemic links of three generations in a unity. The central part is devoted to the concept of quality ageing, developed from the author's analysis of human needs in old age. What stands out is the realisation that the need of interpersonal relationship, the need of passing on experiences and insights to the young and the middle generation, and the need to experience the meaning of old age are neglected with contemporary old people. The concluding part of the paper elaborates on the statement that self-help and help for self-help are the most adequate way to quality ageing in our situation, particularly in view of the emerging social problems on account of the growing proportion of aged people. This opens up great opportunities and tasks for social work, especially with developmental action-research projects of introducing voluntary self-help. A very successful case of this sort in the last decade is the project of introducing and expanding old age groups for self-help and networks of inter-generational groups for quality ageing.
Jana MaliCare of the Demented Residents of the Home of the Elderly in Preddvor - Pg. 331Keywords: dementia, care, group work.
The introductory part of the paper presents the work with the demented residents at the Home. It is followed by the presentation of dementia as an illness, the ways and forms of work with a demented patient, and the possible forms of confronting the illness at homes of the aged. There are three basic forms of care for the demented: integrated, segregated and partly segregated, the latter being used in the said Home. The final part of the paper summarises a research on the impact of the group of demented residents upon the residents themselves, their families and the workers in the Home. Since their inclusion into the group the demented residents are more autonomous, easier to manage, better oriented, and more approachable, individually, by the workers. The relatives do not exhibit a good knowledge of the illness itself or the form of work at the Home, but they feel a need for this kind of work.
Adela PostružnikNon-material Aid for Aged People - Pg. 337Keywords: social needs, self-help, inter-generational linkage, volunteers, home for old people.
Our state social policy - the system of pension insurance and the network of social and medical institutions - has made relatively good material and medical provisions for old people. However, the attitude towards them and the separation of generations under the contemporary living conditions push them over the social edge into solitude and uselessness. This non-material side of their social position is probably one of the worst in history. At this time of unstoppable ageing of society and growing proportion of old people, institutional care is a need dictated by the contemporary way of life. Our society has not yet sufficiently integrated "new forms" of aid to old people, such as aid at home, day care for old people, etc. In certain circumstances, however, moving an old person to a home is a necessity. But to improve the quality of life in old age either at home or in the institutional "home", both material and non-material, social needs have to be satisfied.
Alenka KošakNurses' and Social Workers' Views on Death - Pg. 347Keywords: dying, death, mourning.
The author has conducted a research based on a questionnaire for nurses and social workers at an oncological institute and a paediatric clinic. The death of a patient is a psychological burden, especially if it is a child. Help is needed by the dying patients, their relatives, and the workers. The latter need better support for their distress when their patients are dying, and permanent education on the subject of death. The relatives frequently have no idea to whom to turn for help, when they loose their family member, and usually do not even seek such help. Though in the last few years, several organisations and self-help groups of the bereaved have emerged, they are still available only to a handful of people.
Blaž MesecRobert Atchley's theory on the Continuity in Ageing - Pg. 355Keywords: gerontology, gerontoboetics, social work with old people, continuity.
R. C. Atchley's gerontological theory, which states that the basic internal and external structures of people continue from middle age throughout old age, is based on Atchley's longitudinal study that included, at its start in 1975, the whole elderly population of a small city in Midwestern USA, but at its end included only 30% of initial respondents. The paper's critical comment is that his theory does not explain anything. It merely establishes a fact, i.e. e., the continuity of patterns through time. This continuity seems so impressive, that no variation in ageing process (instead of unchanged continuity) remains for the gerontological theory to explain. Because of a large attrition rate even the generality of the continuity has to be doubted, as it may well be the consequence of self-selection of highly adapted old people.
Danica MatjanecA strategy for the Development of Organized Care for the Elderly in the Danica Vogrinec Retirement Home in Maribor - Pg. 369
Gabi Čačinovič Vogrinčič, Lea Šugman BohincEfficiency (Successfulness) of Conversation in Family Social Work - Pg. 175Keywords: social work, conversation, efficiency (successfulness), cybernetics, qualitative research.
The authors present their qualitative research project (1999) on the efficiency (successfulness) of conversation in family social work. In the form of a list of key concepts the ground perspectives and strategies of family social work are defined that constitute and maintain a typical context for efficient (successful) social work and its supervision. The components of conversation as cybernetic systemic criteria of conversation efficiency (successfulness) are defined as well. Further, the results of their qualitative analysis of the chosen counselling and supervision conversations in the field of family social work are presented, based on the defined contextual and conversational criteria. Finally, their research project is evaluated and certain changes in the field of the (self)evaluation of family social work efficiency (successfulness), of the organization of supervision, and of the self-organization of experts in social work are proposed.
Vesna LeskošekThe Importance of Inter-institutional Co-operation in the Treatment of Sexual Abuse - Pg. 191Keywords: sexual abuse, the centres of social work, the court, the prosecutor, the police, medical institutions, counselling, co-operation, victim, perpetrator.
Research showed a significant progress in the institutional treatment of sexually abused children in Ljubljana. Institutions are obliged to constantly change their modes of work, especially when mutually dependent. The system of treatment consists of the centres of social work, the police, the prosecutor, the court, as well as the Counselling centre for children, adolescents and parents. These institutions are by their character obliged to intervene in the disclosed cases of sexual abuse, whereas the last one, an important therapeutic institution, is often asked for expertise. According to the research, mutual co-operation of the intervening institutions has been improving in particular because of the increase of the disclosed cases, which demands faster and more efficient action. Non-intervening institutions are somewhat lagging behind, even though some cases are disclosed and consequent dilemmas and difficulties regarding intervention occur already there. Despite better co-operation, however, in most cases the victim does not receive adequate support, since there is little possibility of counselling and therapy. The procedures may be carried out adequately, yet the victim subsequently denies the act, continues to live with the perpetrator and finds herself or himself in the same or worse situation of abuse. To deal with this state of affairs, it is necessary to institutionalise co-operation, change the system of operating within individual institution, and set up an efficient system of education and training, such that would make possible a wider range of skills and knowledge in the field of sexual abuse.
Bojana MesecVolunteers Have a Heart and a Will - Pg. 207Keywords: associations, voluntary work, non-profit organisations.
The actions and existence of associations relies to a great extent on volunteer work and on the respective contributions of individuals, groups and communities. The decision to join is based on the person?s inner motivation and the need to help a fellow human. Volunteer work encompasses the values of solidarity, humanity, unselfish readiness to help the others. The research-based paper presents the problems and difficulties of volunteers who already work in the ?social? field. The research has shown that many of them meet disappointment, stress and discontent, especially where they and their work are not responded to or where the work of professionals is valued more highly than their unpaid-for contribution.
Katja FrasInter-cultural Competence: A Challenge for Social Work - Pg. 213Keywords: immigrants, competent social work, social work education.
The paper describes the beginnings and development of social work with immigrants in Vienna. The formation of a new profile of social work is discussed ? the worker with the so-called inter-cultural competence. The author finds that even though the immigrants have a right to adequate social care, they are often denied it. A superficial knowledge about their specific living conditions is no longer sufficient for professional social work. What is needed is a conscious and systematic education and employment of social workers who wish to obtain or have obtained the competence to work with immigrants.
Jelka ZornReport on the Study Visit of the Prague Center for Gender Studies - Pg. 227
Milko PoštrakP. Stankovič, G. Tomc, M. Velikonja (ur.) (1999), Urbana plemena: Subkulture v Sloveniji v devetdesetih - Pg. 231
Bogdan LešnikEditor's notes - Pg. 69
The present issue brings very different topics. First, Srečo Dragoš' analysis of the strategies of the Roman Catholic Church which can affect (or rather, which have a definite share in shaping) its charitable activities, that is, those aspects of its functioning that overlap, in some respects, with social work. Lea Šugman Bohinc develops a cybernetic theory of social work. Janez Balkovec intervenes with a problem which seems quite distant to the "classic" problems of social work, yet at least some of its elements have becomepressingly inevitable in post-socialist life: concern with one's own social and financial security. Bogomil Perfila informs us about the developments in the field of social security in Japan, one of the last strongholds of the social state that is falling. Lastly, Ivanka Žibert presents the views and ideas of the parents of children who attend a school with adapted programmes, as well as of their teachers.
Srečo DragošSocial Impact of Political Conflicts (between the Catholic Church and the State) - Pg. 71Keywords: Catholicism, clericalism, charity, social work, division between the Church and the State, strategies.
In the field of civic aid one of the biggest organised supplier is the (Roman) Catholic Church. It is therefore worthwhile to explore the relation between the Church?s strategy towards its surroundings and its social (charity) function. Can potentially clericalist attitude of the official Church hierarchy politically load Church charity? The answer depends on the solution of the conflicts between the Church and the State authorities, and particularly on the understanding and concretisation of Clause 7 of the Slovene Constitution which postulates the division between religious and secular affairs. The paper elaborates on three aspects of understandings that division, namely, the point of view of biblical issues (the allegorical or theological aspect), the point of view of social regulation (the sociological aspect), and the regard to historical solutions (the historical aspect). The present strategy of the Catholic Church in Slovenia is analysed and compared with opinion polls. The conclusions are useful for further solutions of the said problems and can have a significant impact upon the field of social work.
Lea Šugman BohincCybernetics of Change and Stability - Pg. 93Keywords: first- and second-order change, strategies, second-order cybernetics, psychosocial help.
The author introduces the concept of difference or change and complements it with the concept of stability. Next, she defines the changes of the first and the second order by positioning them into the conceptual language of the second-order cybernetics and, within that frame, of the cybernetics of psychosocial help. Further, she describes the usual strategies people use to trigger first-order changes, and then the strategies of reframing to effect the second- and higher-order changes. For the purpose of greater explicitness of the practical value of the concepts presented she summarises general views and strategies of the cybernetics of change and stability, i. e., of co-creating a convenient context for the development and stabilisation of changes in the direction of the desirable outcome of the problem. Finally, the author presents the law of requisite variety as one of the most profound cybernetic epistemological premises of a successful and efficient psychosocial help.
Janez BalkovecThe Financial Aspect of Organising Personal Social Security - Pg. 109Keywords: social security, personal insurance, saving.
Elementary social security is no longer the exclusive concern of the state but becomes more and more the business of individuals or families. Social security is closely associated with personal property. We must provide for our security in case our working capability fails, protect our family members, acquire a habitation, school our children, pay the rent, keep up our standard, have financial security and invest whatever capital we may have. Financial services offer a variety of programmes we use without knowing in detail what they are. ?Home management? is becoming a complex and demanding task. There are many traps in financial commitments, so that one?s living and material situations need to be profoundly analysed before a personal social-financial plan can be constructed. Individuals and families need to be informed how to control their financial life cycle. Lack of this control may, as a consequence, push one on the edge of survival.
Bogomil FerfilaMulti-medical Provision and Multi-media Industry as Fundamental Developmental Industries of the 21st Century - Pg. 119Keywords: Japan, population ageing, deregulation, privatisation, social enterprise.
Japan is one of the fastest ageing societies in the world today and is very much aware of it. In the nineties, payments for social security were still relatively low; however, a rapid growth is anticipated and they want to prepare themselves well for it. The growing share of aged population inevitably causes not only higher expenses for pensions and social security but also higher expenses for medical care. The Japanese want to prepare themselves now to the demographic situation of the Japanese population that will only arise in a few decades. Europe (and Slovenia) has already met with this situation. The main advantage of privatisation, i. e., the transfer of social functions to the private sector (the government can still collect the money and pay to the private sector for the provision of services, or the consumers can pay directly to the providers), is the reduction of cost. The result may be lower quality, but this can be regulated with prescribed standards and control.
Ivanka ŽibertEducation of Children in a School with Adapted Programmes: Interviews with Parents and Teachers - Pg. 129Keywords: mental disability, education, integration, interview, communication.
The paper presents opinions, views, experiences and proposals of the parents of the children with mental disability at the Primary School Ana Gale in Sevnica, as well as of the schoolteachers. Expressed needs of the former and the ideas of the latter are identified, in particular in their cross-section, that is, where views and proposals of the one group concerns the other. On these grounds, a simpler course of developing quality work with these children is indicated.
Andreja Kavar Vidmar6th European Congress of Labor Law and Social Security - Pg. 139
Bogdan LešnikEditor's notes - Pg. 1
The first part of this year's volume is mainly dedicated to students' contributions, beginning with Dijana Krajina and Damir Nadarević's research from a refugee centre. Refugees are a fact with which we have become somehow accustomed to live and hardly pay any attention to it anymore. In the circumstances marked with indifference, however, anything may go on, as it were. A group of authors — Monika Fritz, Tanja Greif, Veronika Klančnik, Sara Lunaček, Sabina Monro and Nataša Špiranec Maurer with a collaboration by Nino Rode - has undertaken a research on the couvade. Even though the phenomenon has been well described, there was almost no knowledge about its occurrence in our circumstances. The authors stress that even after this research, our knowledge has not increased very much, but it is a beginning. In particular worth pointing out are the two "cases", added to the report, in which two participants in the research describe their and their partners' experiences from their pregnancy Witnessing of the concerned is the main - and very instructive - content of the contribution by Jelka Zorn, based on interviews with younger lesbians. What is painfully transparent here is in particular how Slovene parents react to homosexual orientation of their children (age 20-30) - often by kicking them out of home, and always finding it very difficult to discuss the topic. The next contribution was not written by a student but a teacher, of methodology at that, and he, an expert in qualitative methodology, could surely comment at large upon the methods used in the above papers... But let us be indulgent. In Austin's words, how would we correct our mistakes if we never made any? And of course, the only way not to make them would be not to do anything at all. Blaž Mesec in his contribution takes as a starting point a case of qualitative research and shows upon it the whole range of social work topics, including its metamorphosis due to transition. The final paper in this issue was written by Vesna Švab and concerns additional education of professionals for a more suitable care of psychotic persons. Perhaps we are not altogether wrong in assuming that the reform of Slovene psychiatry is beginning, however slowly and imperceptibly.
Dijana Krajina, Damir NadarevićQualitative Research on Resocialization of Refugees: A Case Study - Pg. 5Keywords: refugees, qualitative research, linear-iterative model, degree of resocialisation, integration.
The authors present the linear-iterative model of qualitative research on refugees. The model is applied to an investigation of the process of resocialization of temporary refugees in a refugee centre. Phases of the model is analysed. The population of refugees is divided into five groups, according to the accomplished degree of resocialisation. The paper concludes with a proposition as to how to achieve better integration of refugees into Slovene socio-cultural milieu.
Monika Fritz, Tanja Greif, Veronika Klančnik, Sara Lunaček, Sabina Monro, Nataša Špiranec Maurer, Nino RodeCouvade in Slovenia: A Research on the Changes in Male Partners during Women’s Pregnancy - Pg. 13Keywords: ritual couvade, psychosomatic couvade, fatherhood “psychosis”, questionnaire, symptoms of passage, reactions to change.
The authors seek an answer to the question about the couvade in Slovenia by way of a questionnaire. Their assumption was that the couvade in men is formed after the model of women’s pregnancy. The questionary was based upon an American research carried out by comparing behaviour in men who expect a child and those who do not. It is divided into sections covering personal habits, working habits, mood and coaenesthesia, needs, attitudes, relationships, expectations and convictions of both partners. The sample consisted of fifty couples from different localities. Analyses showed some changes as significant, in particular those related to sex – both partners’ response was that they have less of it. Notable, too, is a general increase in needs related to their partnership (of mutual trust, communication, responsibility, mindfulness in the partner, safety and fidelity). Men show a slight increase need of intellectual work, whereas women do not. Pregnant women seem to feel most distinctly the changes related to physiological need; partners as well but to a much lesser degree. The findings have been compared with the American research and the phenomena it pointed out in men (combativeness, flight, fear, changes and deviations in sexual behaviour), but no significant correspondence with the Slovene situation has been noted in the results of the questionnaire. In addition, two cases of the researchers who have been pregnant during the process of research are self-reported, both including their observations on their partners.
Jelka ZornHomosexuality from the Perspective of the “Other” - Pg. 21Keywords: interviews with lesbians, stigma, discrimination, parents, legislation.
From the anthropological point of view the “others” represent other cultures or minority cultures within the dominant one. The “others”, however, are subject to fundamental structural inequality. The paper concentrates upon the aspects of the “others”’ inequality, in this case of lesbians. The bulk of the paper consists of five women’s narratives. In semi-structured interviews they talk about their relations with their parents and expectations of the latter, about their problems arising from not being able to marry their partners, about their situations at work, with relatives, etc. The narratives make it clear that their parents mostly take their choice as an impossible one, and describe the deprivileged situations in which they may find themselves. In their perspective many customs, habits and even laws that are taken for granted and unquestionable do not in fact apply universally but rather represent privileges of heterosexual women and men.
Blaž MesecA Contribution of Qualitative Methods to Empirical Research in Social Work - Pg. 33Keywords: social work science, social work theory, qualitative research.
As a comment to the analysis of a paradigmatic case of social work with family, in which parents neglected and physically abused their children, some questions of post-transitional development of social work in Slovenia are analysed. What has been characteristic during the period was a development of social work from a politically and professionally dependent profession to an autonomous one and an academic discipline, responsible to its own ethical and academic standards. As a part of the process, the contribution of qualitative methodology to empirical social work research and the nature of social work science and its theory are discussed. The task of social work science is a critical reflection of practical social work and the development of its theory and methods. For that purpose, qualitative research methods seem most suitable, as they relate to commonly used methods of reflection within the frameworks of practical training and supervision.
Vesna ŠvabThe Need of Additional Education for Workers with Persons with Psychotic Disorders - Pg. 39Keywords: psychoses, education of workers, care planning, rehabilitation, community care.
The paper outlines several reasons for the deficient development of rehabilitation services for persons with mental disorders. Basic characteristics of care planning in a multi-disciplinary working group are described, as well as the basic knowledge members of such groups need. A model of education is proposed which might enable better communication between participants in the process of rehabilitation of persons with grave and repeating mental disorders.