Blaž Mesec

Interactional Theory of Social Work with Individuals (According to L. Shulman) - Pg. 231Keywords: science, skills, empirical theory.

Lawrence Shulman's theory of social work with individuals is summarized as a case of generic empirical theory of social work, which is constructed through empirical research of practical social work. It examines its difference from the social work theories that are mere applications of psychological, psychotherapeutic, sociological or philosophical concepts. The questions of the nature of social work theory and it' s assumptions are discussed. The larger part of the paper describes the skills of social worker ('helping skills') in individual phases of work: identifying indirect communication, responding to indirect communication, tuning in, contracting, elaborating, empathic understanding, sharing one's feelings, making demands for work, pointing out obstacles, and ending/transition. The theory is found to be contradictory. It suggests that mediation between a client and his/her resources to the benefit of both is the basic function of social work with individuals, but at the same time describes social work as a 'conversational work' with the (primary) client only and as changing his or her attitudes to the resources, without involving the resources (secondary clients) into the process of mediation.

Liljana Rihter, Nino Rode, Barbara Kobal

Starting-points for the Evaluation of Programs of Social Welfare - Pg. 257Keywords: program typology, evaluation criteria.

The paper resumes a project designed to set up a system of evaluating the performances and outcomes of programs of social welfare. The ministry in charge of social affairs entrusted this task to the Social Protection Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, which invited to collaboration the Faculty of Social Work. The authors present the proposals of the research team for the typology of programs, which is based on two dimensions: prevention-correction and momentary-permanent, and their proposals for the general criteria for program evaluation: the quality of life, the perspective of power, normalisation, functional capacities, therapeutic effects. Both proposals have been accepted as the basis for the preparation of an evaluation plan. As the next step, the research team intends to verify the general criteria with both users and performers of the programs, and to complement them with specific criteria.

Dragana Glišovič Meglič

Models of Supervision: Management and Dynamic of Supervision Groups in Centres of Social Work - Pg. 265Keywords: group dynamic, supervisor, supervisee, learning.

The author investigated supervision at five centres of social work in Slovenia. Her typology was constructed with regard to the fulfilment of the basic conditions, the relation between the supervisor and the supervisee, the achievement of personal and group aims, the style of managing, the prevailing atmosphere, and satisfaction with supervision. Each centre had a different way, so that five types are described: permanent, competitive, developmental, correctional, and research-directed. The tentative typology is derived from individual interviews and a questionnaire applied to expert workers at the centres.

Marko Mesec

E-Social Work - Pg. 277Keywords: virtual community care, social services network, communication, information technology, methods of social work.

The internet has an important feature of being a socially independent medium, in which differences between races, classes, abilities ant statuses do not hinder communication as they of ten do in everyday life. Possibilities and dilemmas arising from new forms of communication are condensed in case of the internet. Discussions focus on the protection of personal data, a reduced personal contact between participants, and the inaccessibility of information technology for marginal groups. On the other hand, social services and information can be available outside office hours, supervision and self help discussion group s can take place anytime anywhere, and the written material can be archived for later analysis. Some authors believe that 'virtual relations' may replace or compensate for relations in actual surroundings, others, however, expect a wider choice of contact-making, a greater freedom for the individual, and the accessibility of an increasing number of social and emotional resources as well as resources of knowledge. The term 'virtual community care' is used for both online self-help groups and on-line social help.


Petra Videmšek

Individual Plan as a Method of Work - Pg. 283

Ksenija Možina

The Approach to Young People on the Street - Pg. 287


Barbara Kobal, Tjaša Žakelj, Simona Smolej

Personal Assistance for Independent Living of Disabled People - Pg. 291Keywords: disability, independent living, personal assistance.

Personal assistance is a key to independent living of disabled people. It enables the process of deinstitutionalisation and it decreases dependence from the family as assistance provider. Assistants help with those activities which the user would have do ne by himself or herself, if had it not been for a physical, sensory, mental or intellectual disability. 'Personal' connotes that the assistance has to be customised to individual needs. It also means that the user decides what activities are to be delegated, to whom and when and how the tasks are to be carried out. The aim of the article is to present the concept of independent living of disabled people and the implementation of personal assistance in Sweden, Great Britain, and Slovakia, and to present some reflections of implementation of personal assistance in Slovenia.

Simona Gerenčer

Social Isolation of the Deaf in Slovenia - Pg. 299Keywords: social networks, training, education.

Most of the deaf are excluded from the rest of society because of hindrances in their communication. Since their natural language (of signs) is not recognized, they are pushed to the margin of society and deprived of their basic rights. Consequently, deprivation is felt in the economical, social and psychological fields. In the psychological field it manifests as social isolation and loneliness, distrust of the rule of law, low self-esteem, stereotypes and prejudices about the public opinion. In the economic field they are isolated on account of segregated form of schooling in the 'Home of the Deaf and the Hard to Hear', limited choice of employment, illiteracy and functional illiteracy, lack of interpreters and minute takers at lectures, high unemployment rate, and the lack of information. Lastly, the difficulty in communicating, scarce feedback from the rest of society, and inaccessibility of cultural events (theatre, concerts, etc.) are evidence of their deprivation on the social field.


Tanja Lamovec

Right to Reality - Pg. 311


Janja Babič

Foundation Mali Vitez: The Foundation to Help Young People Cured of Cancer - Pg. 315

Marinka Kapelj

Deprivation of Legal Capacity to People with Mental Health Problems - Pg. 319

Tone Kladnik

Dealing with Alcoholism Within the Center for Social Work - Pg. 323

Gorazd Rajnar

Addiction to Alcohol and Clubs of Treated Alcoholics: Opportunity for a New Beginning - Pg. 327

Sonja Robnik

Equal Opportunities for Women and Men - Slovenian Reality - Pg. 331


Špela Urh

Working Meeting on the Situation of Intellectually Disabled in Europe - Pg. 335


Slovene - Pg. 337

English - Pg. 341


Apology - Pg. 342


Vesna Leskošek

Trade of Women's Bodies and Souls in Slovenia until the end of 19th Century - Pg. 175Keywords: history, rituals, punishment.

Western researchers of gender suggest that women have been treated, historically, as bodies that serve the nation (delivering babies) and the master (as wives and household workforce). Slovenian research in the history of women, too, uncovers ideologies and practices that reduce women to their bodies. The earliest records on woman trade on what is presently the Slovenian territory date from the first centuries A. D., either as the trade of slaves or of brides. Rebelling women have been punished more severely than men. Their act was a double offence, violating written as well as unwritten laws - by entering the public domain they changed their prescribed position. Their punishment was harsher in counter-reformation pogroms, as witches they were more liable to persecution, to burning at stakes and to other forms of murder.

Vesna Švab, Urban Groleger

Needs of Women with Recurring Mental Health Problems - Pg. 185Keywords: psychiatric treatment, psychosocial care, stressful overload.

The course of severe and recurring mental disorder in women is more favourable but more frequently erupting than in men. The latter is considered as due to heavier and more specific stressful overloads, such as material deprivation, exposure to sexual and physical violence, and care for children. Consequently the treatment of women with recurring mental health problems in all mental health services needs to be adjusted to their needs. Research has also shown that women more often and sooner find help when in mental distress, and that they become less socially withdrawn on account of hospitalisation and the effects of distress; they retain better social functioning and greater emotional engagement; their dependency upon psychotropic drugs is less frequent or intense; and the risk of suicide is somewhat smaller with them. However, the relation of severe mental disorder to poverty and physical and sexual abuse necessitates linked and coordinated performance of both medical and social services of mental health. A successful recovery is only possible when the services accommodate the users' actual needs, which are of both medical and social nature, in their natural environment.

Duška Knežević Hočevar, Sanja Cukut

Presentations of Suicide in the Slovenian Press - Pg. 191Keywords: rhetoric of the media, individual alienation, social pathology.

The authors discuss the discourse on suicide in Slovenian press over the last three decades. The main assumption is that the chief interpreters of suicidal behaviour are medical experts, and that the journalistic reports on suicide are principally located within the framework of the classical theory of modernisation. Analyses of press clippings show that most authors attribute the cause of suicide to the so-called negative effects of socio-economic progress, notably alienation. Only in the last decade explanations emerged that take resort to environmental and genetic factors. The authors find that the rhetoric on suicide has also been determined by political events. The number of articles significantly increases during the establishment of independence, when suicide is recognised as a "national catastrophe".

Suzana Oreški

Relatives' Care for the People with Severe Psychiatric Diagnoses - Pg. 201Keywords: long-term psychosocial problems, community care, ecological support.

The paper is based on the experiences of daily work with users and their relatives. She finds that the relatives' - not even the mothers' - care for their folks is not a matter of course. Families in which a long-term mental disorder emerges have developed behavioural-relational patterns that often prevent the development and progress of family members. In these families one can observe much devotion but also many scenarios of survival that may be lethal for both user and the relative and a great burden to society. A holistic approach, especially continuing and flexible work in multidisciplinary teams, might improve the outcome of services and the quality of life of people with long-term psychosocial problems and those around them.

Danica Hrovatič

Foundations - Pg. 207Keywords: institutes, non-governmental organisations, social investment, flexibility.

The functioning of the foundation as a legal form of non-governmental organisations may be understood through the survey of pertinent legislation. Based on the assumption that this form is too seldom used in Slovenia, the author scrutinises its character, thus finding the possible obstacles against its being used more frequently. For the potential founders the main obstacle seems to be the strong presence of the state in the creation, operation and closing down of a foundation. Instead, private institutes are used. The finances that the founder provides for a private institute are not officially registered as they are for a foundation, which makes the founding procedure simple and flexible. Proposed new legislation will abolish private institutes, without, however, making the foundation any easier to establish and run. At present, the impact of the state is such that they can hardly be called 'non-governmental'.

Blaž Mesec

Grounded Theories in the Qualitative Research in Social Work - Pg. 215Keywords: theory construction, theoretical reflection.

The author attempts to qualify the theories deriving from his own qualitative research. This leads him to the much discussed question whether the construction of theories in social work on the basis of empirical research has a priority before taking over and applying theories from other sciences. He points up a great variety of the types of theories that resulted from his research, such as diagnosis (recognition of methods and problems described in theories), descriptive theory of professional actions, descriptive theory of social processes, typology, explanation, taxonomy, dialectic theory (theory of contradiction), theory of the implicit theory of actors, theory of the strategies of professional action. They have all been constructed in Glaser and Strauss's tradition of 'grounded theory'. A table of the author's qualitative research projects shows the methods used and the theoretical results.


Špela Urh

Social Work Against Discrimination of Handicapped Women: Report of the Conference "So beautiful, yet disabled!" - Pg. 223


Slovene - Pg. 225

English - Pg. 228


Andreja Kavar Vidmar

'Erased' Convicts - Pg. 61Keywords: convicts, pension and invalidity insurance, legislation.

With changes and amendments to the law of state budget execution in 2003 and 2004, and later with changes and amendments to the law of pension and invalidity insurance, the convicts who work full time while in prison have been removed from the list of the insured. The changes do not provide a transitional period and are inconsistent with the law of execution of penal sanctions. Pension and invalidity insurance in Slovenia is based on work. The work of prisoners is arranged as a labour relation. The abrupt and unfounded abolishment of their insurance makes them suffer additional consequences of their conviction and in general diminishes confidence in the law.

Liljana Rihter

Developmental Trends of the Welfare State - Pg. 65Keywords: convergence, divergence, pessimism, optimism.

The welfare state is conditioned by many factors (globalisation, political relations, fiscal crises) to which it adapts in a variety of ways. On the basis of this adaptation authors try to identify the trends that suggest the future development of the welfare state. The presented ideas, concepts and theories about the development of the welfare state reveal two dimensions along which that development is conceived. The first dimension, on which the welfare state may be positioned with regard to availability of the financial resources that warrant social welfare, she calls pessimism-optimism. The other dimension, convergence-divergence, allows the positioning of the welfare state with regard to the similarities or dissimilarities of the schemes warranting social welfare. Since the arguments in favour of one scenario or the other are often merely theoretical, without an empirical basis (or vice versa), the direction the welfare state will take remains largely uncertain, and we must be ready for any scenario to unfold.

Bojan Regvar, Rok Ovsenik

Social and Economical Aspects of Accession to the European Union - Pg. 73Keywords: globalisation, social policy, social welfare, strategic planning.

The greatest single expenditure of public consumption in European Union and the majority of candidate states is the expenditure for social welfare. To balance it with what is materially possible and with the need to develop competitiveness is important for public finance stability in most European states. The changes that have been produced by globalisation, which are reflected in the changed structure and extent of who uses social welfare, need to be included in the analysis of risk involved in the accession of the candidate states, considering their level of economic development. Short-term statistical projections confirm that the number of claimants of social welfare in Slovenia and other candidate states will grow, which calls for changes also in other social sub-systems, because, if the conditions do not change, it will be increasingly difficult to maintain social stability, control the problem of unemployment, and provide resources for the system of social welfare.

Anka Čufer, Aleksandra Tabaj

Employment of Invalids in Sheltered Workshops - Pg. 79Keywords: unemployment, labour market, sheltered employment.

States organise the employment of invalids in different ways. Some invalids are included in the open labour market, while others are included in special forms of employment. There are two forms of sheltered employment: sheltered workshops and day activity centres. National policies of sheltered employment differ with regard to the definition of the target group, but all definitions apply to those invalids who are unable to work under usual conditions in the open labour market. One of the instruments used by the state to stimulate the employment of invalids in Slovenia is the system of sheltered workshops. The interest in setting up sheltered workshops is high; in 1988, there were 11, but after transition and the restructuring of Slovenian economy the number has risen tenfold and more. However, there is no clear concept about their foundation, nor have their role, their mission and the public interest for their operation been defined.

Miran Možina

Continued Community Care for Psychiatry Users: A Case Study - Pg. 87Keywords: volontary organisations, psychosocial rehabilitation, schizophrenia.

In terms of continued community care for psychiatric patients the Slovenian mental health care system is deficient. In the 90's Slovenian voluntary, non-governmental, and users' organisations have contributed much to the development of continued community care for psychiatric users. Conceptual differences between psychiatric (institutional) treatment and voluntary community care in Slovenia are presented through the case study of Klara who was diagnosed as a chronic schizophrenic. The study shows the importance of community care in voluntary organisations for the reduction of disability associated with mental disorders. A dualistic view such as 'residential psychiatric care is bad, community care is good' is inadequate and should not be a guideline for changing mental health system in developing countries. The development of community-based services does not necessary mean the closure of psychiatric hospitals; the alternative is the inclusion of psychiatric (neuroleptic) treatment into continued community care as in Klara's case. The development of continued community care in voluntary organisations and community-based services has also changed the relationship between the helper and the user. Now the true challenge for the helper is how to bear and support the user on daily basis. The caseworker needed much support (provided mainly by supervision) to endure Klara's phase of dependency on her.

Jana Mali

Quality of Life and Satisfaction of OF Residents and Workers in an Old People's Home - Pg. 105Keywords: institution, emotional work, adaptation.

The author presents the results of a research on the quality of life of the residents and workers and their satisfaction in Old People's Home Preddvor. She examined the residents' satisfaction with nursing, the attitude of the providers of services towards the residents, and the shortcomings of institutional arrangement, by analysing interviews with the residents and questionnaires responded to by their relatives and workers. The residents seem generally content with the services, with the workers' attitude towards them and with the general arrangement of life in the institution. This however indicates that they have taken resort to a 'humble attitude', which made it possible for them to feel good in the institution. The workers, on the other hand, are very liable to the negative elements of emotional work.

Ivica Matko, Slavica Marjančič, Jana Vogelnik Kranjc, Mirjana Česen

Quality of Sheltered Employment - Pg. 117Keywords: human rights, day activity centre, mental health, dignity, exclusion.

The persons included in day activity centres have very little opportunity for self-realisation through employment. Every DAC in Slovenia organises employment in it own way, which entails very different levels of effecting and applying users' rights. In practice, persons with special needs in mental health get most frequently only the simplest, low value tasks to perform, even offensive to human dignity. To improve this situation, DAC's should embark on making and selling their own products, which might improve the quality of such employment. For that purpose the staff of these institutions (social workers, psychologists, special educators) should be trained in managerial, marketing and commercial skills.

Nataša Aničič, Viktorija Pečnikar Oblak

The Response of the Helping Staff of a Long-term Psychiatric Care Establishment to Changes - Pg. 125Keywords: normalisation, deinstitutionalisation, innovations, resistance to change.

The employees of the Establishment Hrastovec-Trate have gone through a particularly difficult period in 2001, when innovations informed by the normalisation and deinstitutionalisation principles have been first introduced. Though they were aware about the necessity of changes, these were stressful and caused considerable discontent. They only reluctantly came to work, worried about the future, and felt that they were marginalised and that nobody listened to them.


Renata Brdar

Evaluation of Social Care Services: Personal Assistance at Social Work Centres - Pg. 135

Tatjana Dolinšek, Karmen Vodenik

Hearing Impaired Persons in the Labor Market - Pg. 139

Klaudija Poropat, Emil Bohinc

Personal Assistance in Terms of Employment - Pg. 143

Andreja Črnko

The Issue of Employment of Disadvantaged Unemployed Persons - Pg. 145

Ksenija Ramovš, Irena Majzelj Usenik

Solving the Problem of Alcoholism in Alcohol Addiction Counseling Organization - Pg. 147

Tone Kladnik

Intergenerational Solidarity as a Two-way Process - Pg. 151

Mateja Eržen

Intergenerational Programs Network for Quality Aging in Trbovlje - Pg. 157

Sonja Hočevar, Lilijana Tomažič

Self-help Groups for Parents with Disabled Children - Pg. 159

Andreja Bogataj

Self-help Group for People with Long-lasting Mental Health Problems - Pg. 161

Jasmina Breznik

Quality of Normalization in a Residential Unit for Adults with Mental Disabilities - Pg. 163

Diana Jerman

Employment and the Impact of Globalization - Pg. 167

Slovene - Pg. 169


English - Pg. 172


Bogdan Lešnik

Editor's notes - Pg. 1

The first issue this year introduces a new type of contributions to the journal, entitled 'For good practice'. It is intended for reports on practice, small ad hoc research, short reflections, etc., which should be of interest particularly to other practitioners, but also to anybody else who is interested in what such services actually do. Social workers and others who work in the social field and want to present their experiences and views, or users of social services and related institutions who want to do the same, are cordially invited to write a few pages about it and sumbit them for publication.


Bojana Mesec

The Importance of Research and Planning of Voluntary Work - Pg. 3Keywords: civil society, non-profit organisations, politics of voluntary work.

We only have a vague notion about how many people are involved in voluntary work, what are their actual tasks, what motivates them, and how their participation is valued. The main obstacles to obtain the data are that the field is dispersed, and that many voluntary jobs remain unidentified, as 'voluntary work' does not only encompass planned actions but also non-planned, spontaneous help. Indicators of the importance of voluntary work are of statistical nature, so it is crucial that the state institutions know the methods as well as the results of research on its impact on national economy. Quantitative indicators may persuade the government to assign a more prominent role to voluntary work, and they are also useful for the promotion and expansion of the field. The elementary data are quite necessary in communication with the media, so that these may adequately present and promote voluntary work, and they inform both public and private sectors about the many ties between national and community-based projects.

Božena Ronner

Views of Secondary School Students on Sexuality, Family Planning and Non-religiosity - Pg. 9Keywords: second modernisation, values, the youth.

The wider area of the town of Jesenice, with its traditional ironworks industry, is currently in transition from being a fading industrial complex to post-industrial modernisation. The values of young people seem stretched between these two systems. The author inquired in a questionnaire to what degree the students of Jesenice Grammar School have been affected by the processes of the second modernisation, comparing her results with a similar research from 1981. Notable differences can be spotted regarding contraception (the frequency of the response that it is a decision of parents has more than doubled) and regarding artificial ending of a pregnancy (again, the response that it is a decision of parents has doubled its occurrences).

Polona Selič

Protection of Children from Sexual Abuse - Pg. 19Keywords: children\'s rights, violence, victim, offender, forensic psycho-physiology, polygraph.

The Convention on the Rights of the Child binds the state to observe and implement its Article 34, which defines sexual abuse, and Article 19, the first paragraph of which demands the protection of children from all forms of physical or mental violence, including sexual abuse, within their families. The Convention's guidelines are that the family is the basic and therefore the most important social group; nevertheless, the notion of the children's 'best interests' (Article 3) entails the protection of children from their parents' abuse as well (Articles 9 and 19). Sexual abuse of children is a pressing social phenomenon and a problem demanding the swiftest possible reaction of institutional networks and professional services. The protection of children from sexual violence and abuse is only possible as a comprehensive treatment involving both victims and perpetrators. The focused treatment of sexual offenders provides the individual (the potential victim) and society with greater security and must therefore be regulated by law, which, however, is a political decision.

Mateja Tajnšek

Experiencing Multiple Sclerosis - Pg. 33Keywords: disability, narrative, life story, discrimination.

The presented qualitative analysis of interviews with five persons suffering from multiple sclerosis is based on Corbin and Strauss' theory of managing chronic disease. The inflicted describe their illness biographically, from the standpoint of their life stories, as something vital, even fateful. The progress of the disease is described in detail and at length, especially the occurrences in the hospital, because this was the time when their life completely changed. A disturbed self-image was perceived in the inflicted, along with the awareness of being different. A restoration of their life is crucial for them, but they are given little or no social support. They feel it very important to link up within the Association for Multiple Sclerosis.


Magdalena Žakelj, Darja Vidmar

Becoming independant after a head injury - Pg. 43

Danica Matjanec

National Network of Self-help Groups of Old People - Pg. 47


Index of Year 42 (2003) - Pg. 51


Slovene - Pg. 55

English - Pg. 58