Bogdan LešnikEditor's notes - Pg. 493
The present issue — on account of the abundance of the former one somewhat thinner — is introduced Andreja Kavar Vidmar with an analysis of the Slovenian labour legislation from the standpoint of the protection of women and the protection of equality of the sexes before law. She finds, among other things, a certain contradiction between the progressive legislation on the one hand and the inconsistencies within its individual segments on the other. Next, Andreja Klemenc-Žvikart presents two cases of the practice of a centre of social work regarding the assignment of children after divorce. Both cases are quite ordinary, but precisely in this very instructive. Notably, there is, first, the problem of the child who in the procedure of divorce are often the victim of his/her parents' conflict, and second, the problem of centres of social work which have to deal with weakly motivated partners and make them concentrate more on the benefits of children than on their mutual relationship. Let us add that according to the Slovenian legislation, it is usually the court that decides on the guardianship of children; however, in many cases the decision is left to a centre of social work. Such are the cases of legal marriage, in which a centre is asked to form an expert opinion for the court to decide, and even more so the cases of commonlaw marriage, in which it is solely upon a centre to make a decision. The former issue of the journal was dedicated to an anniversary — 40 years of existence of School of Social Work in Ljubljana. Since not all contributions could be included, we are here publishing a paper in which Marija Ovsenik grapples with wider theoretical and epistemological aspects of organisation and management.
Andreja Kavar VidmarConsiderations About Family in Labour Legislation - Pg. 495
The relation between the sphere of work and family is important for the quality of life and for the success of a business. Considerations about family are generally neutral with regard to gender, yet related to the problems of employment and work of women. The paper presents labour legislation norms relevant in Slovenia: the conventions of the International Labour Organisation, the local legislation and collective contracts, illustrated with some data from abroad. There is a high level of the rights of workers with family engagements in Slovenia. However, legal regulation is rigid, does not take individual circumstances into account to a sufficient degree, does not keep pace with labour legislation elsewhere in the world, and most of all, the relatively extensive rights cannot be successfully protected.
Anica Klemenc-ŽvikartThe Mediation of a Social Service in the Procedure of Assigning Children - Pg. 511
The paper presents two cases of assigning children after divorce, in one case of a common-law marriage, and in the other of a legal one. Both cases show disadvantages of the judicial procedure of divorce in view of what it means for the children. The court, namely, assigns each child to one (former) partner alone, which often decreases the motivation of the other one to take his or her share of the responsibilities for the child. The author's stand is clearly in favour of the solutions that the formal guardianship of a child is kept by both parents even after divorce, or else, that they jointly make decisions about the child's upbringing even during the procedure of divorce, instead of trying to use the child as a weapon in their mutual fight.
Marija OvsenikSocial Work in Organisations - Yes or No? - Pg. 521
The author's starting point is the realisation that the time immediately following the establishment of Slovenia as an independent state corresponds to the great wave of transition from an industrial society into a post-industrial and post-capitalist one. Its side effect, a high degree of unemployment, has affected social workers as well. The problem is even more pressing, as in the period of industrial society no general theory either for organisations or for social work has been built. The two facts, in author's view, are not coincidental, because the traditional Cartesian scientific method of division into the smallest detail has not been adapted for the studies on life which takes place and manifests itself in units, disregarded and overlooked by the Cartesian dividing method. Around 1970, biology contributed a new concept, autopoiesis, aimed at research of living organisms. Besides, the last few decades have seen a new paradigm, according to which all that is said is said by an observing human. These two novelties entail a recommendation to supplement the Cartesian method of an a priori fear and doubt with an a priori belief and trust in a person whose autonomy and identity require taking into account the moral-ethical aspects and values.
Bojana Kos GrabarInterview with Patsy Soerensen from NGO Payoke, Belgium - Pg. 541
Bogdan LešnikEditor's notes - Pg. 361
As is evident from the Contents and the abstracts, this issue is wholly dedicated to the 40th anniversary of University of Ljubljana School of Social Work. Although the anniversary, as will be seen, leaves the staff with mixed feelings, the only appropriate thing to say on the occasion is: Congratulations!
INTRODUCTION TO THEMATIC ISSUE
Blaž MesecAn Indefinite or Only a Long Way Towards a Comprehensive System of Social Work Education? - Pg. 363
The fortieth anniversary of University of Ljubljana School of Social Work is an opportunity to describe its development from its foundation in 1955 until now, and above all to describe the efforts of its teachers and associates to establish an adequate and comprehensive system of social work education which would be comparable to European and world standards, a system educating for a variety of professional roles in the various fields of practice and allowing students to achieve the highest professional and scientific qualifications within the academic framework of social work. Trying to achieve this goal, the school has been meeting with an unforgivable absence of awareness about the significance of the profession of social work for social development, and with a widely spread indifference of relevant and responsible parts of its social surroundings towards the School.
Bernard StritihA View of Social Work in the Present for the Future - Pg. 385
School of social work has survived its 40 years of existence in the times of rapid and deep social transformations, especially since 1991. Among other things, social institutions have radically changed their ways, as have ideas or theories about society and people's experiencing of themselves. Social work is one of few professions which attempt to understand the people in their social contexts. The School's research team has found in the past few years that what is predominant in the framework of institutional help of social services to client systems is the so-called »hard« (pathological-diagnostic, causal) model. At the same time it has become clear that in many situations it would be appropriate to develop the »soft« (functional, problem oriented, dynamic) model. The paper presents some experiences in developing the »soft« model of help and some theoretical foundations of this approach.
Gabi Čačinovič VogrinčičSocial Work With Families - Pg. 395
The author presents the basics of the doctrine of social work with family. Several concepts are pointed out which give names to the specificities of the way social work approaches the complex social problems of families. The paper at once clarifies the concepts and pleads for their use. An expert must in all instances establish a social work-specific working relationship: (1) he or she must negotiate for a goal-oriented project and (2) as a participant in the given family system he or she must discover (or co-discover) and name (or co-name) the possibilities and the contribution of the family.
Lea Šugman BohincSocial Work - A Science? - Pg. 403
The author presents her vision of the School and social work as a new science, founded of the change of the epistemological framework of scientific research. She leans on Pask's Theory of Conversation which takes into account interpretational mental activity and the unavoidable inclusion of (the characteristics of) observers in observation, as well as establishes the obtained consensus of the participants of conversation as its only truth-value, i. e., an analogy.
Milko PoštrakSocial Cultural Work - Pg. 407
The paper is a condensed summary of the theoretical framework the author has been developing for the field of social cultural work or the field of »use of creative techniques in the counselling process*. His starting point is clearly inter-disciplinary and it is based on the assumption that art as well as science - as two forms of creative human enterprise - are part of everyday living world of the people. Thus it has to be borne in mind that in researching humans, one always researches their »nature«, i. e., culture. The questions of creativity are also tackled, since they are still unclear and escape all attempts at strict scientific definition.
Srečo DragošThe Theory and Practice of the School - Pg. 417
The paper discusses the relation between theory and practice (in general and in social work) in three parts. The first part relates to the Slovenian history in which the dilemma of theory and practice has been given effect as an alternative choice, which has, typically, ideologically blocked the developments of several professions. The second part gives an example of how the problem of the interweaving of theory and practice is solved in sociology as a general social science which precisely because of its theoretical orientation cannot afford to neglect practice (everyday life). The third part gives an analysis of the School's study programmes in the period of its transition from 2-year to 4-year studies. Here, a positive and a negative trend clearly stand out: the former can be seen in a no less than three times as many specifically social-work courses, whereas the latter is evident in the expulsion of practice from the programs, which may again lead to the false dilemma about the alternative choice between theory and practice.
Vito FlakerThe Premises of Compulsory Measures in the Field of Mental Distress and Their Transformation - Pg. 433
The author starts by analysing the basic premises of the measures undertaken by the state in the field of mental distress, known generally as compulsory treatment or compulsory hospitalisation. With the changes in the field of mental health the imprisonment into psychiatric hospitals and related institutions ceases to be necessary, even becomes undesired, and should be replaced by different measures. The premises of obligatory measures in the field of mental health are, first, that a situation demands it and that somebody represents a danger for oneself or others, or else, that he or she urgently needs help. Analysing these assumptions, the author concludes that obligatory measures should include an analysis of risk, an assessment of mental soundness, as well as a plan of diminishing the risk and strengthening of personal faculties. As many forms as possible will need to be searched for, in order to bridge the gap between actual and virtual identity that emerges in founding someone »not in his/her sound mind«. Further, the author analyses the characteristics of private, public and institutional spaces which determine the introduction of the measures and their carrying out, as well as the role of different measures in solidifying or dissolving the career of a mental health service user.
Pavla Rapoša TajnšekThe Professional Identity of Social Workers and the Reputation of Social Work IN PUBLIC - Pg. 445
The paper summarises the views of two American authors who research negative stereotypes and myths about social work in public and compares them to the Slovenian situation. The most important factors of preserving the stereotypes are presented, those that arise from social work practice, organisational frameworks, the characteristics of workers and the establishment of professional criteria. Strategies are offered that may change the inadequate image of social work in public on the micro and macro levels.
Andreja Kavar VidmarHighly Personal Reflection on Time and Places - Pg. 455
Vida Miloševič-ArnoldReflections on the 40th Anniversary of the University College of Social Work, Ljubljana - Pg. 459
Bogdan LešnikEditor's notes - Pg. 273
The present issue is introduced by Sonja Žorga's contribution on voluntary work, in which she also discusses the motivation for it. This is linked to the essay of volunteer (student of social work) Jože Frkač who, between the lines, responds to whether and how these expectations are fulfilled. The issue — represented by Frkac's metaphor »kiss yourself on the lips«—is far from free of contradictions, and perhaps their analysis could be useful for planning the training of, and working with, volunteers, which is also one of Žorga's topics. In her paper, Jelka Škerjanc analyses several new services for the people with special needs and finds in them a more or less subtle continuation of the former relations of power. This does not necessarily indicate unwillingness of those services to introduce a new kind of relationships, but it certainly indicates the insistence of a certain discourse of power dominating our ideas about »how to work with users« and often contained in the very social framework determining the establishment of new services. This paper, too, has its experiential parallel in an essay: Boža Napret, among other things, studies the strategies by which the management of such a service can maintain the relations of domination, even though its aims may be different. Having mentioned ideas about »how to work with users«, we may add that a not uncommon attitude towards users of illegal drugs is »only a dead drug-user is a good drug-user«, in which »dead« has benevolently been replaced with »former«. Namely, most measures against drug-using (modelled after the treatment of alcoholism) aim at achieving or maintaining abstinence. From the standpoint of social work, however, this is useless, since, first, therapy is not within the general scope of social work, and second, social work as such is not concerned with drug-using itself but with social expulsion of the user which is to a great extent a consequence of the above attitude, as well as generates further consequences for the user's conduct and life. In this respect, Peter Stefanoski presents social work that accepts using drugs, or rather, accepts and helps the person regardless of his or her taking drugs. Vida Miloševič-Arnold presents fosterage in Indiana, USA, and compares it with the situation in this field in Slovenia. An essential difference, however, does not concern the organisation of fosterage itself but its preliminaries: in Indiana, it does not seem to be based on mere political will and correspondingly impetuous action but on research of the situation, needs and possibilities. Though it can hardly be denied that political will does have the last word, an approach as rational as this will probably remain uncharacteristic for the planning of services (either for children or adults) in this country for a long time yet... Finally, Franc Udovič offers some technical tools for a just assessment of alimonies for children after the divorce of their parents; they will no doubt be convenient for the professionals who have to deal with it, but generally, the paper makes it clear that administrative solutions of like problems slowly make way for the consensual ones.
Sonja ŽorgaTraining Volunteers as to Their Motivation and its Outcome - Pg. 275
Introducing the paper, several factors are presented which motivate people to volunteer in professional institutions and in various actions and projects organised by non-governmental organisations. The effects of volunteering are roughly divided into those related to personal growth and self-realisation, professional education of the volunteer, and learning about the institution and the professional's role in it. In its central part, the paper deals with a variety of characteristics and peculiarities of guiding, training and supervising volunteers, presenting, at the same time, a model of tutoring, supervision and training. The author favours the integral approach that focuses on supervision groups. Supervisor (often the professional who heads the project) has a tutoring role in these groups, bringing into play the educative as well as guiding and supportive function of supervision.
Jelka ŠkerjancA Tale of Ecology and Power - Pg. 283
The author focuses on the problem of total exclusion of the handicapped people from discussions affecting their lives and their social position. She touches upon the dubious, power-related management of some recently established services for the handicapped which give the impression to be modern and user-friendly, whereas in fact, as regards power relations within management structures, they are rather like sisters of their criticised big brothers (institutions). The necessity of change within relations of power between professionals and users is emphasised, so that the handicapped will be able to take over control of their lives and of the services established for their benefit.
Peter StefanoskiSocial Work That Accepts Drog-using - Pg. 289
The author offers for reflection a possible approach to the work with people who take illegal drugs. His reference is social work that accepts drug-using. He insists on the discourse of social work and its roots in supporting community mental health and social security. The problem of drug-using is therefore discussed in the framework of social integration v. social expulsion of the person who takes drugs. The purpose of social work in these cases is not defined simply as achieving abstinence which is merely one of possible solutions of a problem situation. The final purpose is what in the discourse of social work is defined as social integration.
Vida Miloševič-ArnoldFosterage in Indiana - Pg. 301
The paper presents fosterage in Indiana, USA. Initially, the development and the legal regulation of the field in the USA are compared to those in Slovenia. The procedure of placing a child into a foster family is described in detail, as well as a special kind of fostering called therapeutic. The author presents the principles guiding US legislation and professional practice in this form of child care, as well as the way in which regulations and directions in professional work are established, all of which is strongly linked to research.
Franc UdovičAssessing Alimonies by Agreement - Pg. 309
The Slovenian Law of Marital Union and Family Relations regulates, among other things, the question of assessing alimonies and defines in detail the conditions and elements of the assessment. In practice, however, the issue is often delicate: how to determine the amount that would correspond to the receiver's needs as well as to the capabilities of the other side. What is particularly difficult is to justly assess and consider the work and time invested in care and education of underage children by their parents. The paper presents the technique of mediation, in which the alimony is discussed with regard to the planning of future households of each parent and includes their wholesome financial and material situation. Through mediation, the former partners seek for a solution (the amount of alimony) that will enable both parents and children to live normally after divorce.
Boža NapretThe Process of Deinstitutionalisation of the Unit for Younger Handicapped Within Ljubljana-Bežigrad Home for the Elderly - Pg. 323
The author describes her experience of the »deinstitutionalisation« of the unit in which she lives. Theoretically, she refers to Foucault's and Berger and Luckman's analysis of institutional practices. What is particularly revealing is the kind of »cunning of the mind« which only achieves »changes« that do not alter the fundamental structure of the relationships, at least not intentionally
Jože FrkačVoluntary Work - Pg. 335
The author, on the basis of personal experiences, seeks for the boundary, or junction, between the professional and the voluntary, between paid and unpaid work. He defines voluntary work as a »capital value«; by the same token, its »profit« depends on the investment. The essay is also a survey and analysis of the group home in which he works as a volunteer.
Darja Zaviršek, Pavla Rapoša TajnšekFrom the Mythological Importance of Women's Employment to Forced Unemployment (Seminar "Gender in Transition." Samara, May 24th-26th, 1996) - Pg. 341
Katarina GorencSecond National Conference on Advocacy (Portorose, March 29th-30th,1996) - Pg. 347
Andreja Kavar-VidmarR. Jarvis, M. Glosen, D. Hermann, A. Leonard (1991), Aids Law - Pg. 349
Darja ZaviršekAWOL - časopis za socialne študije. Vol. 1 (1995), issue 1-2 - Pg. 353
Bogdan LešnikEditor's notes - Pg. 183
This journal has already published a number of papers dealing with the relationship between social work and politics, but of course the subject is far from exhausted, because this relationship is continuously reconstituted in everyday social work practice. The term »politics« does not only refer to the sphere of political authority that regulates practice, but also and mainly the political practice as the unavoidable and essential part of any endeavour beyond charity to improve the situation of the people who need help. But even charity has a place in the political universe, as history teaches us. And here, in fact, is the key: while talking about »endeavours to improve the situation of the people who need help«, it should not be forgotten (1) that those who »need help« or are threatened in some ways have often in history been identified as those who in fact threaten (either the social order or at least some »sense of order«), (2) that the definition of an »improved situation« wholly depends on the dominating values within the given social-political order, and (3) that there are motives to every »endeavour«, those determined by the very position of the subject of »endeavour« and reaffirming this position being much more important than the pronounced ones. Yet »endeavours to improve the situation of the people who need help« is one of the kinder definitions of the field... Much about this can be found in Vito Flaker's paper, discussing the history of the »total institution«. The link between »providing help« and the political field is rarely seen as clearly as when we observe how these things emerged, how concept have been established, how what is now considered unthinkably as an evident form of help originally had other aims... The distinction of »the needy« from everybody else (other subjects, citizens etc.) is tied up with political discourse, but at the same time, the distinction amongst »the needy« themselves, however well articulated (within different professions), never puts in question, much less abolishes that which ideologically unifies them within that discourse: their very »difference«. If, therefore, this distinction defines the political status of »the needy«, that is, a relationship of power in which the latter are always mere receivers of help and thereby automatically in an inferior position, then the way of changing this relationship is political emancipation. »Political« in the sense of establishing a political action with the purpose of preventing the mechanisms of stigmatisation and discrimination to continue by inertia, and of empowering the subjects of emancipation, releasing them from their dependency on the political will of this or that authority on their lives. Political emancipation of psychiatric patients in Slovenia has begun with the establishment (and the concept) of (self-)advocacy, and this in turn begins with the people speaking out about their experiences with mental health services and with the changes this forces upon the formation of the services. This is what the research reported òy Tanja Lamovec signifies. No doubt professional ethics is very much related with these issues, inasmuch as its purpose is the protection of (the rights of) users, essentially including that their comments, objections, suggestions etc. be heard. Even though professional ethics no longer seems to lye depending on politics as it used to be, for example, in real socialism (Soviet psychiatry immediately springs to mind), a link remains, but what essentially remains is the question of how much a professional ethics includes responsibility towards users. To achieve this, the users actually have no other means than by way of poUtical emancipation establish a dialogue with the profession. Surely, the whole thing is still far from being free of contradictions and ambiguity; this is demonstrated on an example by Srečo Dragoš. There is probably no single key through which these relationships could be regulated once and for all, and consequently professional ethics, just as political emancipation, seems a permanent and open-ended project. There is a notable political dimension of the racist, nationalist and similar ideologies underlying the attacks on immigrants and other marginalised social groups. Such attacks, certainly not unknown (but as yet rather unstudied within social work) in this country, have been a recurring experience in Germany; to learn from it, we publish Berlin psychologist Birgit Rommelspacher's paper which was originally written for the last year's issue of Perspectives of Social Work, the international edition of this journal. The phenomenon has huge implications for social work, as it demands of social workers to challenge its causes rather than merely trying subsequently to put out the fire, and not merely in the metaphorical sense.
Vito FlakerThe Birth of Total Institution and the Rationalisation of Charity in The Age of Reason - Pg. 185
Although the birth of total institution is usually seen in relation to the absolutist state, some of its functions and patterns derive from two mediaeval forms of communal residence: the court and the monastery. By the end of the 16th century, they were transformed into places of seclusion and isolation for »deviant« groups from the rest of society. Specific space and specific working time of professional carers enabled town dwellers to perform charity in an indirect and rational way. The article looks into the logic and the various meanings of this rationalisation. It also tries to give an account of how this anachronistic mode of patterning human relations and experiences has survived by the help of absolutist power. As a hybrid of ancient patterns and new structures, total institution fostered dependency and domination on its inside, while on the outside, in society at large, it allowed the basic new order notions of egalitarianism and independence to remain unchallenged by the basic conditions of human existence: difference and (inter)dependence.
Tanja LamovecCommunity Mental Health Through the Eyes of the Users - Pg. 197
The article is based mainly on the data presented by two British researchers, Peter Barham and Robert Hayward. They conducted a series of interviews with a group of users living in the community and recipients of community mental health services. Parts of the interviews were transcribed verbatim, as they were found to reveal some intriguing aspects of their lives. Such data are an extremely valuable source of information, as much as they are rare, because most research is still done with professionals as informers. The paper is a story of successes and failures of community services as reflected through the lives of their users. Since community mental health services in Slovenia are as yet virtually non-existent, the contents of these interviews are presented in some length. It is hoped that when community mental health eventually becomes acceptable to our democratic society, we may take it from there and develop it further instead of repeating the same mistakes all over again.
Srečo DragošSocial Ethic: Between the Conviction and Responsibility - Pg. 217
The work of machinery and organic systems is non-ethical, whereas interactive psychic and social systems are characterised by ethical actions. Their ethical mode may be questioned, but not whether they »have« or »don't have« ethics. The tide of the paper already points out the two possible approaches to the subject: ethical actions can be evaluated either with regard to their regulation or from the viewpoint of motivation. In the former case, it concerns the ways of regulating ethical action (e. g., the difference between professional and non-professional ways), while in the latter case, it concerns the rationality of a given choice, considered by Weber as the dilemma of conviction and responsibility. That the dilemma maintains its importance, is illustrated on examples from Slovenian history and on the example of social work.
Birgit RommelspacherRight Wing Extremism and Racist Violence: The Controversy as to Its Causes - Pg. 227
Since the unification of Germany, there has been an intimidating growth in racist violence and an upsurge of extreme right-wing incidents, both in the former East as well as the Western part of the country. These developments have brought forth strong and multi-faceted controversies amongst scientists in various professional fields as to the causes of such violence. Should one look for the reasons behind all this in the growing economic insecurity, in the lack of possibilities for young people? Or is it primarily xenophobia, such as we can find elsewhere in the world? Are we talking about the economic interest of a rich Western Europe, trying to isolate itself from an immigration influx of the poor? Or might the acts of violence be an expression of a freshly awakened male chauvinism, presenting us with the worst of German traditions? The discussions are indeed plentiful. It is the author's opinion that the lines of conflict, however vague they may be, always contrast the aspect of racism and violence as a symptom of the dominant society. This is a phenomenon originating in the logic and interests of the latter on one hand, and understanding the phenomenon as a sign of a passing crisis on the other, in which the specific problems of marginal groups are exposed.
Blaž MesecChallenge of Old Age - Responses of Social Work in Europe - Pg. 237
Vida Miloševič-ArnoldNeo-Fascism and Racism in Europe and Social Work - Pg. 247
Darja ZaviršekR. Constable, V. Mehta (1994), Education for Social Work in Eastern Europe - Pg. 259
Bogdan LešnikEditor's notes - Pg. 87
In their paper, Blaž Mesec and Gabi Čačinovič Vogrinčič present a simple methodological tool for the analysis of the work of a social service in an individual case. The example they choose clearly shows that this work deals with the consequences of a problem and not with the problem itself, much less with its causes. The method may be recommended not only for the analysis of a service's performance in a particular case but also for the evaluation of a service, because its performance in a given case (i. e., in face of an actual problem) is the only pertinent criterion of its efficiency or success fulness (at least from the users' point of view). However, if we try to relate the above with Franc Hribernik's contribution, we at once realise that there is in fact no service or institution which could be taken responsible for the low degree of safety on our roads. The problem (in the number of deaths and injuries) is quite evident, but we are not aware of any crisis team or working group that would deal with it more than sporadically (and of course with dutiful moaning). The following two papers belong to the field of anthropology which is (either as social or cultural anthropology) one of the important background disciplines in social work training. If we try to summarise their link in a few words, we may say that knowledge of human habits, representations, beliefs, prejudices, stereotypes, culturally specific behaviours etc. is necessary not only so that we can approach a person in a manner relevant to him or her, but also for the very identification of a problem, for the latter is often (if not by the logic of things) not merely a matter of objective circumstances, but a matter of the person's participation in them. We can demonstrate that (with the risk of stating the obvious, as well as of simplifying) on the example of both papers. First, the theme discussed by Zoja Skušek — new reproductive technologies — might be summed up simply by saying that science has developed techniques which can help the people who otherwise couldn't have children. This by itself does not seem to be a problem; it arises because the new reproductive technologies challenge several established cultural patterns, notably that of parenthood. Second, the fact that some people are homosexual needn't represent a problem at all; but it necessarily arises when the culture in which they live renounces, condemns and suppresses them. This takes place through, among other things, the reproduction of stereotypes treated by Andrej Zornik and Katerina Mirović. Slađana Ivezić's contribution continues our series of papers about group therapy. The author, indeed, works in a hospital setting which undoubtedly brings in some specificity, but her contribution is relevant for us on two accounts: first, there is a great number of social workers working (with groups as well) in psychiatry, and second, because — the problem of jargon aside — the fundamental findings are applicable to the work with large groups in general. In the second part of his analysis of the responses to our questionary on new social services, Srečo Dragoš arrives to some very interesting conclusions regarding the differences between sectors as well as the role of the state in the system to which these services belong. Reading is recommended not only to the agencies whose job it is to take interest in how different services develop and act, but also and particularly to the providers of services as a contribution to their self-evaluation.
Blaž Mesec, Gabi Čačinovič VogrinčičAnalysis of Chronological and Interaction Patterns - Pg. 89
On the basis of a case of social work with a family with multiple problems, predominantly alcoholism and violence, a method of qualitative analysis is developed in the paper. The case represents the category of prolonged work with individuals or families, in which the chronological dimension comes to the foreground of attention. The procedure consists of (1) the forming of a chronological transcript of events and of simple and synchronic chronologies, (2) the analysis of action patterns, consisting of the analyses of time-patterns, interaction patterns and implicit theories, (3) the final conceptualisation or theory-construction. The result of the case analysis is the construction of the concept of two strategies of social work: the controlling strategy and the helping strategy. The controlling strategy is described by the following characteristics: passivereactive pattern of action, orientation towards administrative measures or interventions, asymmetry of power between family and service, linear-causal thinking. The helping strategy consists of proactive action pattern, orientation towards social work methods, empowerment of the family, pragmatic-realistic orientation, systemic epistemology.
Franc HribernikCould Society's Help to Victims of Traffic Violence be more Efficient? - Pg. 115
The paper presents some social aspects of traffic accidents, quite frequent on Slovenian roads. In the last decade the number of the dead and the injured had decreased but in the early 90's it slowly increased again. Nearly 500 people die and more than 7.000 are injured in road accidents every year. Among the victims of traffic fatalities, foreigners are also relatively often involved. Obviously, to prevent road accidents is the essential measure the state should take for reducing that social problem, and social consequences faced by the victims of traffic fatalities and their families require deeper engagement of all relevant social institutions. However, material and penal responsibility of those who cause traffic accidents should be emphasised to a greater degree as well.
Zoja SkušekThe Troubles with Parenthood: Biological and Social Parents in the Light of New Reproductive Technologies - Pg. 131
The author surveys the very controversial responses of lay and professional public to new reproductive technologies (NRT: artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation, substitute pregnancy). In the mid 80's, the medical technology in the field of NRT advanced so much that state institutions, notably legal and medical ones (concerning ethical issues in medicine) were compelled to rethink some of the premises regarding the traditional notions of fatherhood, motherhood, lineage and inheritance. This technology raised some doubts about the old biological-genetic concepts of fatherhood and motherhood and raised the question about whether our culture — as well as many others — is indeed capable of distinguishing biological parenthood from social one. Judging from the responses, the answer is negative, as the question itself seems to threaten the stability of social order.
Andrej Zornik, Katerina MirovićHomosexuality Through Stereotypes - Pg. 137
The authors, using a questionary on a random sample of the residents in Ljubljana, gathered some data on their attitude to male homosexuality. They find that all theories about homosexuality have survived among them; the same subjects sometimes mix even mutually exclusive ones. Thus, a separate marginal group is constituted, forming a more or less unified group identity, and it, too, often takes on popular stereotypes about itself, as shown by the interviews the authors conducted on a sample of homosexual men. The main source of the stereotypes seem to be social institutions; they pass them on to one another, modify them and reproduce them. The most important, lately, seems to be the role of the media, in which the co-existence of different theories about homosexuality and its causes is particularly evident.
Slađana IvezićTherapeutic Factors in the Large Group of Schizophrenic Patients - Pg. 145
Тhe paper deals with the therapeutic factors of inpatient large group. The unstructured situation of a large group has been found untherapeutic. To avoid the traps of unstructured situation leading to blocking anxiety, disturbed self boundaries, intensified splitting and projective identification, the therapist pays attention to handling opinions and dialogue in the group. The group becomes structured through a theme which facilitates discussions and stimulates thinking. The influence on the process of thinking and reality testing has been found to be the most powerful therapeutic factor in the large group.
Dušana FindeisenThe Role and Importance of the Social Worker in the Eyes of Those Who Need Help - Pg. 151
Ivana PerkovičInternship at the Agency Leila: A Different Way of Finding a Job - Pg. 155
Srečo DragošContextualisation of Social Innovations (II) - Pg. 159
The results of the questionary on social innovations indicate that the typical public sector services differ from all other respondents not only in their resources but also in some features that are directly or indirectly related to their mode of carrying out their services. The differences include their working hours (availability), their pointing out the person who initiated the innovation, in the way their users are referred to them, in the transparency of their practised techniques, in their knowledge of other important services, in their awareness of their own specificity, and in their openness to volunteers. This indicates that the process of deregulation influences social innovations not only in resources but also in contents, whereas the state moves away from the strategy of substitution and introduces the strategy of synchronous accumulation, thus retaining a central role in the welfare system.
Bogdan LešnikEditor's notes - Pg. 1
The first issue this year is introduced byJože Ramovš's article on logotherapy, a therapeutic method of »searching for meaning« developed by Viktor Frankl. Sadly, one had to place much effort to find some meaning in being imprisoned (like Frankl) in a Nazi concentration camp, not to make it sound like a justification for violence over oneself... Let us passingly - merely for clarification - point out that in spite of the used terminology (terms like »unconscious« etc.) logotherapy has nothing in common with psychoanalysis, except of course its general psychodynamic orientation. Franc Hribernik this time discusses social security of Slovenain peasants. It is probably one of the normal contradictions in society that on the one hand, it sees strong tendencies towards »return to the tradition«, »preservation of traditional values« etc., while on the other hand, it cold-bloodedly lets down those who represent its most authentic tradition. But though »normal«, it would probably pay to analyse this contradiction. Social inovations, argues Darja Zaviršek, are intended to increase the power of both users and their services. Are we paying attention to the tiny shift in terminology? The former »struggle for power« (meaning, more or less, to take over the government) has been replaced with the endeavour to increase one's power; it is a shift from the revolutionary concept of power to the oppressed (the attempts at which, as in the »workers' state«, led to even worse forms of oligarchy) to the legalist (therefore reformist) concept of participation which cannot be achieved without a certain amount of power. However, notions like »charitable help« etc. still seem merely props in the mass (media) spectacle, says Mark-Henry Soulet in his paper, delivered last year in Lisabon at the international colloquium on Human Rights and the Formation of Social Services, and points out another conceptual shift, parralel to the above (but by no means identical): »The class struggle has been, picturesquely speaking, replaced with the struggle for positions...« Our questionary about new psycho-social services and activities has produced over 50 replies. We have published them all, the last ones in the fifth issue last year. Here, we include the first part of a research made upon them by Srečo Dragoš. It is rather an introduction in which the author lays down the framework for his analysis of the actual answers in the next issue. We thank those who have taken part by sending us the answers and invite them and others to present their services and activities in a more comprehensive way to our readership.
Jože RamovšLogotheoretical Elements of Anthropohygiene - Pg. 3
The article analyses the contemporary need for preventive strengthening of human physical, mental and spiritual health and for a cultivation of good interpersonal relationships. This is one of the aims of all the great projects of WHO. The author states on the basis of his own experiences and research that a curative methodology is usually not appropriate for preventive work. In the central part of the article he presents and defines integral prevention as anthropohygiene; its concept and methods have been developing for a number of years. The theory of anthropohygiene follows the logotheoretic insight of Viktor E. Frankl, and it can be regarded as the preventive branch of logotherapy. The article presents mainly those logotheoretic concepts that support anthropohygiene, in particular: the integral picture of human beings, their personal spiritual capacities, the axiom of meaningful life and integral reality, as well as the resulting laws of the dynamics between unconscious and conscious experience and behaviour.
Franc HribernikCan Farms Provide Adequate Social Security for Slovenian Peasantry? - Pg. 15
The process of transformation of Slovenian post-socialist society has different effects on social security of social strata. Among those who have already had survival problems, there is also an increasing number of small farmers. The analysis indicates that the level of social security of peasantry with limited economic resources and specific socio-demographic characteristics will probably get worse. Especially in cases where householders cannot rely on traditional intergenerational solidarity. Succession and heritage are not ensured to almost half of all farms in Slovenia, including nearly 20% of larger farms. Limited developmental and social possibilities will be also faced by many farms with relatively favourable socio-demographic potential and economic resources but without adequate human resources. A great number of Slovenian peasantry still hasn't got appropriate professional education for modern farming. It is estimated that only 10% (i.e. 11,000-12,000) of all currently existing farms probably have favourable social and economic future.
Darja ZaviršekSocial Innovations in Social Work: a Vision or an Illusion of the 90's? - Pg. 31
The author describes the history and role of social innovations in the fields of mental health and women's issues in Slovenia. These social innovations are based on social action and are marked by Central European mentality as well as by the former communist regime. Both of these elements have a major impact on the understanding of the rights of social work and mental health service users. The government still supports the establishment of total institutions such as large residential homes for psychiatric patients, or Mother-Child Homes used mostly by young homeless women. However, there are some grassroots initiatives to build up social services that should increase the independence of their users. Social workers who are involved in social innovations experience intense marginalisation. The reason for this is not so much the people with whom they work, but the ways in which they share power, show respect and act as advocates for their users. Social innovations are therefore important not only because they bring more choices into the social field but also because they change the role of social workers and the image of statecontrolled social work in Slovenia.