Franc BrincTheoretical and Practical Questions of After-Release Help - Pg. 365
Released prisoner needs material help as well as psychological one, but it is not clear, what kind of help and how much help shoud be provided by the penal institution itself in comparison to social services outside the institution. Proper help could be provided only in case we would know, why the criminal act has been commited, in what way the prisoner has changed since then and what could prevent him from repeating the act. The question of measurement of effectiveness of after-release help is not settled, since prevention of further criminal activity is not and shouldn't be the basic aim of punishment, correction and after-release help.
Srečo DragošWhat Kind of Volunteering for What Kind of Socialization - Pg. 388
Voluntary work has been always connected to the socialization of services. Historical analysis of the concept of solidarity of Durkheim, Marx and Engels shows that the concept has meaning of collective consciousness, undivisibly connected with the concept of socialization. A typology of 4 types of realization of solidarity and socialization has been proposed on the basis of two dimensions: connectedness-isolation, authonomy-submission: sociability and individuality, conformity, totalitarity and anarchy. Two attitudes to voluntary work are presented: attitude from bottom on and attitude from top down.
Ida HojnikInstitutional Form of Collective Living as Dependency and Unconnectedness of Elderly - Pg. 405
Homes for the aged function acording to the industrial logics and thus hinder the satisfying of important psychological needs of elderly such as privacy, authonomy and integration into the natural living environment. Some alternatives to the closeness and uniformity of institutions are proposed, e.g. differentiation of inmates acording to needs for care and help, raising of professional skills of personnel, and development of open care.
Anica KosReport on the Conference of the International Association for Voluntary Endeavors in Washington - Pg. 412
Alenka KoboltReport on Group Work with Children and Adolescents with Developmental Difficulties in the Center for Social Work Piran - Pg. 423
Andreja Kavar VidmarCondorcet, Intellectual in Politics (E.Badinter, R.Badinter, Condorcet, Un intellectuel en politique. Libraire Artheae Fayard, Paris 1988) - Pg. 432
Maca JoganA Contribution to the Problematization of Tradition: Production of Women's (Natural) Identity - Pg. 266
In this article the author elucidates some important historical determinants of the cultural patterns of femininity which have in common in all existing societies the reduction of woman on her reproductive function first of all. With this fact the legitimization of women's elimination out of other spheres of human activity is connected. On the example of european history she explains the rise of the total reductional pratice which was founded on the assimetry of sexes and of social power.
Andreja Kavar VidmarThe Combination of Professional and Family Role - Pg. 281
The social determination of combination and separation of professional and family role is discussed, especially regarding the motherhood and women's work. It is stated, that the employment of women has been stimulated and hindered depending on ways of production, manpower needs and population policy. The thesis is illustrated with quotations from texts by E. Badinter, C. Raffestine, and M. Bresso. The real possibilities should be created for men and women to combine both roles freely or to chose between them.
Pavla Rapoša TajnšekWomen and Social Work - Experiences in FR of Germany and Our Own Ones - Pg. 288
The interchange of visists between teachers of Ljubljana School for social work and Hochschule fur Sozialarbeit in Dortmund, FR of Germany, contributed new knowledge about different ways of solving women's problems in West German society comparing to our own. While in Yugoslavia the women's emancipation was treated as a class problem above all, in FRG, under the influence of feminist movement various forms of selfhelp and professional services, which help women to solve their problems, have been developed. The work of various organizations and institutions in FRG, and experiences with treating women's problems in the School for social work in Ljubljana are presented.
Mirjana Ule"Premodern" Role of "Privacy" and "Women's Labour" in Industrial Modernity - Pg. 301
The assignment of lasting sexual social characters is not only a traditional residuum in industrial modernity but the basis of nuclear family, which is a decidedly functional phenomenon in industrial societies. The modern division in private and public spheres has two faces, which are distinctly sexualy profiled and complementary. Women are limited through particularity more than men, and are able to achieve true individuality only with greater sacrifices.
Darja ZaviršekWomen in Politics of Mental Health of Modern Psychiatry - Pg. 307
The psychiatrization of women is dependent on culture and politics of a given period and on social position of women. The production of symptoms is tied to women's struggle for their own authonomy and freedom, that is for the redefining of their established sexual roles. Mental disturbances of women are therefore to be regarded as their demand for withdrawal from unbearable squeeze of sexual role, and from the position of inferiority, passivity, shame, and violence, tied to the role. The politics of psychiatry reproduces the relationship of unequality of sexes through various mechanisms. The production od specific "women's illnesses" is in direct connection with the underprivileged position of women in contemporary society.
Mojca DobnikarOn Violence - Pg. 317
On the basis of a case of violence against a young girl the author reflects on social and psychological causes of violence against women. She pleads for the principle, that violence is not to be regarded just as a way of communication between equal partners; that victim is not problematical but the doer; that violence is not to be regarded as self-evident and natural.
Gabi Čačinovič VogrinčičA Project Week and a Round Table on Women's Question - Pg. 324
Katarina VidovićOne Year's Experiences with SOS Telephone for Women and Children - Victims of Violence - Pg. 327
Darja Zaviršeklokasta's Children (Christiane Olivier, Jokastes Kinder, Die Psyche der Frau im Schatten der Mutter, DTV, München 1989) - Pg. 336
Darja ZaviršekThe Sexual Abuse of Girls (Rosemarie Steihage, Sexueller Missbrauch an Madchen, Ein Handbuch fur Beratung und Therapie, Hamburg 1989) - Pg. 339
FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS
Bernard StritihSearching for the Possibilities of Restructuring of Social Help - Pg. 107
The restructuring of social services in our country is part of a world process of change from developed industrial society toward a new way of life of mankind. In this process not only change on macro level is important but also the "micropolitics of wish" (Guattari), the restructuring of communications and a dialogue between state institutions and community, the new approach of critique through establishing of alternative models. As a conceptual framework of the restructuring, a typology of social help is cited, containing two dimensions: solidarity-marginalisation and collectivism-individualism. On the basis of critique of the welfare state model, principles for a new development of these services are proposed: appreciation of individuality, creating of possibilities for individuation, transparency of the system, possibilities for the expression
Ciril KlajnščekToward the Modern Social Policy - Pg. 125
On the basis of his own experience the author tries to call attention to the transition from the revolutionary to the postrevolutionary type of society as a necessary precondition for the establishment of the social policy in the modern sense of the word. Every revolutionary type of society has a built-in construction failure: in our case the political monopoly of communist party. The structural consequence of it is the deconstruction of modern political body of the society with it's basic constitutive parts: civil society, legal state and legitimate authority. Such a political body is the precondition of a modern social policy. The psychological precondition of modernization of social development in this sense is the overcoming of unmaturity and the transition to the mature functioning of the personality, freed of the logics of "good and evil" (ie. revolution and counterrevolution).
Pavla Rapoša TajnšekSocial Care is the Basis of the Developmental Social Policy - Pg. 145
The overemphasizing of social services as the most suitable framework for the satisfying of collective needs has many negative consequences besides financial ones', among others the dependency and powerlessness of users. It is the real source of the slogan of selfreliance, which has positive and negative implications as well. On the one hand it leads toward the residual and selective approach in social policy and toward the fetishization of liberal market economy, on the other hand it stimulates the interest for selforganization, investment of private money and self-production. The essential point for the social policy is how to use the advantages of both, formal and informal sector not only to make possible survival but to stimulate work and development, to allow for differentiation and to prevent marginalization. To reach these goals social care system should be integrated into the unitary system of social welfare.
Andreja Kavar VidmarThe Social Program of Survival - Pg. 156
Social programs, which should ascertain the survival as a complex unity of physical survival, preservation of moral integrity and maintenance of the creative potentials, should be oriented toward the individual and the societal levels. New responses are possible in the form of new services, adapted to the new forms of social insecurity. Examples on the individual level include: supplementary training, training for new jobs, training for higher levels of skills, counseling, support, and others. On the societal level: economic success, political order (social peace, socialist order), legal state, cultural and national autonomy, preservation of legacies of civilization. The linking-up of the individual and collective, the coordination of short-term and long-term fictions, of social and economic goals should be taken into consideration.
Srečo DragošWhy There Are No Social Programs? - Pg. 161
After an introduction of a theoretical model of the development of social policy (after Veljko Rus), the results of a research of a group of students of social work are presented. The group finalysed the content of some Slovenian newspapers (1988/89) to find out, what attention had been paid to the issues of social policy. The articles about social programs are almost absent, the articles about social policy are rare; the exception is one weekly review, which devotes considerable space to the presentation of individual social cases. On the basis of the research a question is raised, whether the theory of social automatism has really been overcome in this country. The arguments are stated for the view, that it hasn't been overcome and that it is still present in the new concept of integral social policy.
Gabi Čačinovič VogrinčičSocial Program of Survival: Family in Times of Crisis - Pg. 189
Empirical research in the framework of student group project-work shows that in the time of big housing shortage in Slovenian society two thirds of students of social work have their housing problems "solved", ie. they will remain in the houses of their parents or their partners' parents. But only 5 % agree with this solution. After a critique of the traditional slovene emotional pattern, which determines this solution and renders more open and inovative ones more difficult, the paper discusses the psychological problem of living-together of two generations. Two psychological concepts could be used to highlight the problem: the concept of work-group (W, R. Bion) and the concept of coalition between parents and of maintaining of generational differences (Th. Lidz. R. Skynner). The discussion of both concepts leads to the conclusion, that it is necessary for the family to work out the project of their common living and makes possible the delimitation of the two generations.
Vito FlakerDisinstitutionalization as a Program of Survival - Pg. 197
On the basis of an action-research project and direct work of a group of critically oriented young volunteers with inmates of an institution for severely handicapped mental patients (Hrastovec) a critic of the total institution is worked out. A total institution is a residual mechanism for subjecting and controlling in which three aspects of marginality emerge: marginality of inmates, of institution, and of symbolic message. There is a danger, that market orientation will stress the onedimensional concept of marginal categories of population and their stigmatization. Therefore modern forms of treatment are needed outside traditional institutions. In the debate on the dezinstitutionalization two opposing views dominate: one of economic and organizational effectiveness and the other which stresses the etical and political dimension. The possibility of a synthesis of these arguments exists through a dialogue of "normals" with "abnormals" and stigmatized, and with one's own marginality.
Marija OvsenikA View on the Social Program of Survival from the Point of View of Organisational Science - Pg. 203
According to the systemic-holistic view parts and whole are interdependent, always reaching the dynamic equilibrium on a new level as a reaction to the changes in them. Social problems are regarded as a change ("illness") in some parts, which trigger the reaction in others. To maintain the system on it's optimal level of functioning a proactive approach is necessary. Social problems should not be regarded as problems of marginal groups but as a complex problems of the whole society. "Sociality" and "bussiness-mindedness" are interdependent aspects, not isolated and opposed but mutually dependent in good and bad.
Blaž MesecIndividual and Family Scenarios of Survival - Pg. 212
The results of an explorative research in the framework of student group project-work are presented. On the basis of the qualitative analysis of interviews of an accidental sample of general population (n = 30) a typology of responses of the individuals and families on the socioeconomic crisis had been constructed. The three basic types are ordered along the dimension of "growth-stagnation-decline" of living standard and wealth of the household, and divided in several subtypes which show quite a variety of responses and of living conditions. The limitation of consumption follows the characteristic pattern of priorities from the limitation of luxuries to the limitation of the satisfying of the needs of one's own children on the other extreme. A tentative explanative model of the typology of reactions is proposed with variables such as: growth potential of a family, value-system and life-style, rigidity-elasticity of family-structure, and protectiveness of the environment. The interviews show a quite common defensiveness in confrontation with future, and a lack of reality-based creative thinking.
Nada Rebolj, Miranda Vrh, Jožica Lukan, Blaž MesecLife Conditions of the Users of Social Aids - Pg. 240
Srečo DragošPartition of Society (Vjeran Katunarić, Dioba društva, Sociološko društvo Hrvatske, Zagreb 1988) - Pg. 244
FROM FOREIGN PERIODICALS
Srečo DragošSocial Work in Relationship to Ideology - Pg. 7
The contradiction between professionaly proclaimed goals and actual power-relationships in society demands of social workers to be partial (engaged) and objective (professional) at the same time. This is the only way for them not to become an instrument of adaptation and be effective nevertheless. The prerequisite for the stance is autonomy of social work, which in turn depends on autonomy of social policy and autonomy of voluntary work. In a society with socialist ideology the obstacle for the first one is the theory of social automatism, the obstacle for the second one is fear of self-organization of citizens outside the directed forms of social and political assotiations. Socialization of social work presupposes the individuation of individuals and their linking-up with others as the precondition for the development of everybody. It is in this context only that there is possible to overcome the contradiction between profession and ideology.
Ciril KlajnščekCrisis and Rationality of Team-work - Pg. 25
On the basis of distinction between work in production and work in services the paper discusses the rationality of team-work in a society where a mciss unmaturity is the consequence of the institutionalized self-goveniement; unmaturity as an absence of courage for independent use of one's own mind and as a silent resistence to the established order; where the theology of work is the governing ideology and where the work in social services is being submitted to the criteria of technical rationality. The team-work should procede in accordance with a common concept of work, with common rules of the game and with an accepted leader, which should care for the respecting of the rules. The basic component of the rational behavior is a responsible, consciously led and systematicaly organized thinking/discourse.
Marija OvsenikThe Problem of Personnel Planing and Education in New Light as a Problem of Cultural-Value Education - Pg. 35
On the basis of the critic of cartesian paradigm, especially of the cause-consequence relationship, the analysis deals with the concept of personnel planing. The paradigmatic change from the machine model toward the organismic model brings with itself a move in education of personnel from the principle of disciplinary fragmentation and egotistic orientation toward the holistic principle and orientation in human, social and natural environment. This move stresses the importance of cultural-value education. The education should enable people for the perception of social problems and contribute to the humanistic values. Through it the social-humanitarian activity should be broadened in principle so as to include every human, worker and employee.
Blaž Mesec, Nino RodeInformedness of Full-time Students of Social Work and Students of Specialization Courses about AIDS - Pg. 42
How well are full-time students of social work and students of specialisation courses informed about aids? A survey among the students of Ljubljana school of social work (n1 = 131 = 80% of the population of 1st and 2nd year students; n2 = 34 specializants; 85% resp. 88% women) shows that they are relatively well informed. Average of correct responses on a test of knowledge with unknown metrical characteristcs is 43.6 items of 64 possible. Almost the whole distribution is on the upper half of the continuum. They are best informed about the ways of contagion, then about the behavior of the virus, initial symptoms and epidemiology respectively. There are no significant differences among the full-time students and specializants. The analysis of variance shows almost no significant relationship between knowledge about aids and sociodemographical variables (sex, father's education, residency; slight relationship with religion).